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Local Ways of Managing Insecurities in Indonesia
This volume discusses how national and local social security in Indonesia has changed over the past decades and in particular during the economic and political crisis of the late 20th and early 21st century. The contributions, based on case studies from urban and rural Java, focus on the evolution of existing formal and informal institutions providing social security and at the ways in which people create access to such institutions and develop strategies to handle insecurities. The main conclusion is that informal institutions providing support to those who need it, more and more tend to exclude the poor and weak sections of society, and that government policy in this field is only beginning to address these major social issues.
Volume Editor: Rebecca Empson
How do prophets and their prophecies influence the processes of decision-making, concepts of authority and ideas about causality and time? How can we talk about prophets and prophecy in the Mongolian cultural region when prophetic forms and people seem so varied? This book brings together anthropologists, historians and religious specialists to focus on the role of prophets and the distributed language of prophecy in relation to these questions. Central Asia has a longstanding tradition of prophets who have either challenged or collaborated with political leaders, and due to new uncertainties about the future, current interest in prophetic announcements has recently re-surfaced. This volume explores the arenas in which prophets and their prophecies have influenced the processes of decision-making, concepts of authority and ideas about causality and time in the Mongolian cultural region.
From Onon Bridge to Cambridge
Author: Urgunge Onon
The distinguished Mongolian scholar Urgunge Onon’s reminiscences offer a rare insight into the culture and lifestyle of a Daur Mongol in the first half of the twentieth century. Covering the years from his youth to middle age, the author offers a wide spectrum of experiences from a disappearing world, including everyday family life, shamanist customs, the role of the bonesetter, wolf hunting, falconry, folklore and some of the great legends of the past, including the story of ‘The Black Old Man’. He also recalls at length how he was kidnapped and held to ransom, his association with Prince Demchügdongrob and Mongolia’s fight for independence, as well as his relationship with the Japanese Imperial Army and wartime experiences in Japan. In 1948 he took his family off to the US and studied at Johns Hopkins University – the first Mongol to do so – and acquired US citizenship in 1957. In 1963 he moved his family to England and taught at the University of Leeds until his retirement in 1985, when he became a Visiting Fellow at Clare Hall, Cambridge, and helped to found the Mongolia and Inner Asia Studies Unit (MIASU). Onon’s reminiscences have deepened over time and will be welcomed by students of Mongolian history and culture as well as those familiar with his earlier writings on shamanism and his childhood.
A Major Philosophy of Life in East Asia
This book provides an outline and an appraisal of Confucianism as a system of ideas and beliefs that evolved during the past 3 millennia and continue to do so. Its roots are traced back to pre-Confucian times, followed by a detaled examination of some 40 Confucian thinkers. It also describes the social context of evolution of Confucian thought.
Author: Atsushi Ota
This volume deals with the sultanate of Banten from the outbreak of the rebellion of 1750-52 to the launching of the Cultivation System in 1830. After the suppression of the rebellion by the Dutch East India Company (VOC), local society showed considerable vitality. The introduction by the VOC of forced exploitation of the pepper cultivation did not lead to a significant increase in production, but enabled the local elites to augment their power.
In the late 18th century Asian traders (many Bugis and Chinese) and English country traders integrated Banten and its Sumatran territory Lampung into a vibrant inter-regional trading network. This trade pattern, which involved the exchange of pepper and the maritime and forest products demanded by the China market for opium, contributed to the emergence of a new economic order in insular South-East Asia. This study shows how the the society of Banten was in a state of constant transformation in reaction to the Western presence and the shifts of the world economy during the period from 1750 to 1830.
Author: Ryuto Shimada
In this definitive study of the intra-Asian trade in Japanese copper trade by the Dutch East India Company, the author argues that the trade in this commodity reaped high profits. Despite the huge imports of British copper by the English East India Company during the eighteenth century, the Dutch Company successfully continued to sell Japanese copper in South Asia at higher prices.
Compared to the capital-intensive development of British mines in the age of the Industrial Revolution, the copper production in Tokugawa Japan was characterized by a labour-intensive 'revolution' which also made a big impact on the local economy.
Author: Hui Kian Kwee
This book is a study of the political economy of Java's Northeast Coast from 1743, when the VOC emerged as its ruler, until the end of the eighteenth century. The focus is on the various power-holders - namely coastal Javanese regents, Mataram rulers, Chinese merchants and Company authorities - and how they accommodated the changes brought about with the power shift, what their primary resources were and how they tried to maximize their advantages in the new politico-economic setting. This study also shows how the Company, despite being the ruler, had to compromise with these power-holders and satisfy their needs to optimize its own gains.
Editors: J. Noorduyn and A. Teeuw
Preserved on undated palm-leaf manuscripts, Old Sundanese texts are generally in poor condition and unavailable to a wider audience. There are limited texts in any form of Sundanese, and only limited knowledge of Old Sundanese. In presenting three long Old Sundanese poems, Noorduyn and Teeuw, in a heretofore unequalled English-language study of Old Sundanese literature, bring to the light works of importance for further linguistic, literary and historical research.
The three poems, The Sons of Rama and Rawana, The ascension of Sri Ajnyana and The story of Bujangga Manik: A pilgrim's progress were undiscovered before this book. The first two were found in a nineteenth-century manuscript collection of the former Batavian Society and are now in the National Library of Indonesia in Jakarta, while the third was donated to the Bodleian Library in Oxford as early as 1627, though it was not identified as an Old Sundanese poem until the 1950s.
Editor: Edwina Palmer
To what extent are our futures likely to be determined by our traditions from the past? Asian Futures, Asian Traditions is a collection of conference papers by scholars of Asian Studies, who explore the topics of continuity and change in Asian societies through essays in history, politics, gender studies, language, literature, film, performance and music. Recurring among the themes of the book are the invention and reinvention of tradition, nostalgia, issues of national and ethnic identity, colonial heritage, nationalism, ‘reform,’ and the effects of globalizing economies. Both the power and the precariousness of several Asian economies are revealed in studies of the ‘Asian Economic Crisis’ of the late 1990s and the conversion of some communist states to ‘market socialism.’
The Death of Bhoma
Editors: A. Teeuw and S.O. Robson
The Bhomantaka, or the Death of Bhoma, is a wide-ranging tale of the sweet romance of Samba and Yajñawati, of the defeat of the demon Bhoma by King Kresna and his minions in a truly monumental battle, and many more incidents and descriptions, a product of the sophisticated literary tradition of early Java. The poem is written in Old Javanese (composed by an author who does not mention his name or that of his king), in an idiom that presents many difficulties for the modern reader. This book contains an edition of the text, a translation, and an extensive explanatory introduction—enough to make the work accessible—and was produced by a team of two, both senior scholars of Old Javanese and experienced in producing readable English translations.
It will become apparent in the course of reading that there are still numerous philological problems attaching to the text and its interpretation, but on the other hand it is also a fact that it contains many a passage of delightful poetry, philosophical teaching and other cultural information. As a result we get a glimpse of what Java was like perhaps eight and a half centuries ago, and of the thought-world of the Javanese of that age – a world where legendary, mythological or divine beings do battle, and kings march out to restore the welfare of the realm.
This publication takes its place in a long line, from the author via the copyists, in Java and in Bali, who faithfully and lovingly transmitted the work, down to the first edition of the text in 1852 and then the first translation in 1946. In this way a literary tradition of great value has been preserved for the future, and the KITLV Press now offers this contribution to coming generations of students of Old Javanese and to scholars of comparative literature around the world.