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Traditional wooden houses are an integral part of the identity of the majestic Ifugao rice terrace landscape as the architectural heritage of the indigenous Ifugao people. These traditional houses function as family residences and serve as rice granaries, refuge, and special housing for unmarried people in the community. In as much as the materials used for the construction of the traditional house are sourced from the surrounding wood lots and communal forests, the traditional house serves as an important record of the history and value of indigenous and endemic trees found in the central Cordillera mountain range. This study identified 206 traditional houses in Kiangan town, and from these houses, transverse sections of house parts from the dismantled and standing houses were examined. Thirty-two species of mostly indigenous and endemic trees were used to construct traditional houses across four periods: (1) before 1931, (2) 1931–1960, (3) 1961–1990 and (4) 1991–2020. The Ifugaos consistently utilized the preferred wood species such as Amugawon (Vitex parviflora), Udyo (Pterocarpus indicus), and Itangan (Weinmannia luzoniensis) for traditional house construction. Wood species such as Yakal (Shorea astylosa), Gmelina (Gmelina arborea), and Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) were also identified from recently constructed houses. The disappearance of certain premium hardwoods and a shift to commonly available but less quality wood is noticeable, as the former were over-utilized but never mass-propagated. Finally, a conservation planning workshop on traditional houses was organized among local homeowners, barangay, and municipal officials, agreeing on the following points: (a) creation of an ordinance to protect and conserve existing traditional houses; (b) development of information, education, and communication materials on the importance of traditional houses; and (c) enhanced collaboration and cooperation among stakeholders.

Open Access
In: International Journal of Wood Culture


Almost all ancient plays have three things in common with most modern musicals. First, the basic structure of most ancient plays, like most musicals, involved alternation between song and speech. Second, the songs of ancient plays, like those of musicals, could have a wider cultural relevance, living on beyond their original performance context. Third, in most ancient plays, as in musicals, there is a strong sense that song and dance are as important as, or even more important than, what occurs in spoken dialogue in providing pleasure to the audience and conveying the meaning of plays. Scholarship of the last decade has made clearer the centrality of music to ancient theater and has taken important steps in understanding how that music worked.

In: Greek and Roman Musical Studies
Author: Timothy Power


This article provides a survey of recent scholarship on music and dance in the cults and rituals of ancient Greece and Rome, with a focus on work that explores the experiential aspects of worship music. I review research on cultic and ritual soundscapes; the materiality and phenomenality of ritual sound; special modes of visually and aurally perceiving cultic mousikē; the epiphanic potential of sacred music; ways of remembering, recording, reenacting, reperforming, and reexperiencing ritual musical performances within and beyond the parameters of cult. I also propose some further avenues of inquiry into each of these topics. Other approaches to religion and music are discussed as well, in particular the sociopolitical contextualization of cultic choreia that has remained a dominant interpretive paradigm over the past two decades.

In: Greek and Roman Musical Studies
Unter dem Titel eikones hat der Nationale Forschungsschwerpunkt Bildkritik an der Universität Basel eine Buchreihe im Rahmen der bildtheoretischen Forschung gegründet. Darin erscheinen Monographien und Sammelbände, die im Rahmen der Forschungsaktivitäten des NFS Bildkritik entstehen, sowie andere Arbeiten, die sich in diesem Themenspektrum angliedern. Die Buchreihe versteht sich als neue Plattform kritischer Bildforschung unter der Leitfrage nach der gegenwärtigen Macht und Bedeutung der Bilder.

eikones vereinigt mehr als 50 Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler an der Universität Basel. Das interdisziplinäre Forschungsprojekt folgt der Leitfrage, welche Macht und Bedeutung Bilder haben. Durch die Zusammenarbeit unterschiedlicher Disziplinen (Philosophie, Kunstgeschichte, Literaturwissenschaft, Designforschung, Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Ägyptologie, Informatik etc.) an gemeinsamen Fragestellungen wird in diesem Forschungszentrum das Bild als Symbolsystem erforscht. Der NFS Bildkritik verbindet Grundlagenforschung mit Einzelfallstudien und integriert andere Universitäten, Fachhochschulen und Sammlungen zu einem innovativen, interdisziplinären Forschungszentrum mit internationaler Ausstrahlung.
Little is known about the Christianization of east-central and eastern Europe, due to the fragmentary nature of the historical record. Yet occasionally, unexpected archaeological discoveries can offer fresh angles and new insights. This volume presents such an example: the discovery of a Byzantine-like church in Alba Iulia, Transylvania, dating from the 10th century - a unique find in terms of both age and function. Next to its ruins, another church was built at the end of the 11th century, following a Roman Catholic architectural model, soon to become the seat of the Latin bishopric of Transylvania.

Who built the older, Byzantine-style church, and what was the political, religious and cultural context of the church? How does this new discovery affect our perception of the ecclesiastical history of Transylvania? A new reading of the archaeological and historical record prompted by these questions is presented here, thereby opening up new challenges for further research.

Contributors are: Daniela Marcu Istrate, Florin Curta, Horia I. Ciugudean, Aurel Dragotă, Monica-Elena Popescu, Călin Cosma, Tudor Sălăgean, Jan Nicolae, Dan Ioan Mureșan, Alexandru Madgearu, Gábor Thoroczkay, Éva Tóth-Révész, Boris Stojkovski, Șerban Turcuș, Adinel C. Dincă, Mihai Kovács, Nicolae Călin Chifăr, Marius Mihail Păsculescu, and Ana Dumitran.
Editor: Alina Payne
The Land Between Two Seas: Art on the Move in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea 1300-1700 focuses on the strong riverine ties that connect the seas of the Mediterranean system (from the Western Mediterranean through the Sea of Marmara, the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov) and their hinterland. Addressing the mediating role of the Balkans between East and West all the way to Poland and Lithuania, as well as this region’s contribution to the larger Mediterranean artistic and cultural melting pot, this innovative volume explores ideas, artworks and stories that moved through these territories linking the cultures of Central Asia with those of western Europe.
Author: David W. Music
The hymns of Isaac Watts are a remarkable blend of biblical, theological, liturgical, poetic, musical, and practical dimensions, some of which have seldom been touched upon in previous studies of the hymn writer. In this book, you will find analyses of Watts’s texts from each of these perspectives. As shown by this study, it is not only these individual factors but their combination that made Watts’s hymns innovative but also effective and long lasting in his own time—and that makes many of them still useful and widely sung today.
Author: Stefan Hagel


A variety of possible applications of modern technology for music-archaeological purposes are discussed: from studying and evaluating musical finds and acoustical environments through the presentation of pitch structures down to databases, their statistical evaluation and the necessity and promises of dedicated coding.

Open Access
In: Greek and Roman Musical Studies
Volume Editor: Anti Selart
The Baltic Crusades in the thirteenth century led to the creation of the medieval Livonia. But what happened after the conquest? The contributors to this volume analyse the cultural, societal, economic and technological changes in the Baltic Sea region c. 1200–1350. The chapters focus on innovations and long-term developments which were important in integrating the area into medieval European society more broadly, while also questioning the traditional divide of the Livonian post-crusade society into native victims and foreign victors. The process of multilateral negotiations and adaptions created a synthesis which was not necessarily an outcome of the wars but also a manifestation of universal innovation processes in northern Europe.
Contributors are Arvi Haak, Tõnno Jonuks, Kristjan Kaljusaar, Ivar Leimus, Christian Lübke, Madis Maasing, Mihkel Mäesalu, Anti Selart, Vija Stikāne, and Andres Tvauri.


The ruins of a 10th-century Byzantine-style church have been discovered following the archaeological research of 2011, about 24 meters west from the actual Romano-Catholic Cathedral in Alba Iulia. The edification of the church under a Byzantine-style plan may be justified in the context of the Christianization of a Hungarian leader of the southern Transylvanian population. The plan of the ruins, marked by four pillars, leads to the idea of a cross-in-square church, even if the proportions between the structural parts are not respected. Due to some church reconstruction of the early Arpadian period, we argue that according to the information recorded only by the plan, the results could be inaccurate. Therefore, all the presented reconstructions cannot be conclusive because of the reduced amount of information, but can be regarded as a starting point for further researches.

In: Christianization in Early Medieval Transylvania