Thirteenth- and fourteenth-century fragments of the Middle Low German Apocalypse in verses, probably written during the thirteenth century, are handed down to us, as well as three complete texts from the fifteenth century. In the course of the fifteenth century this text was shortened in two different ways and was used in several places in the North of Germany. Eight more or less complete versions give evidence of this. Our study investigates the reasons why this text from the thirteenth century regained popularity in the fifteenth century.
Fortunatus is a rich man: Fortuna gave him a little bag, that always contains 10 gold coins when he reaches inside. The motive of the bag has been studied in terms of its economic power; this article wants to introduce another interpretation that connects the bag to the increasing relevance of the Hindu-Arabic numerals. The symbol for and the meaning of the Zero as well as the metaphorical overlap of the bag and the female reproductive organ will be the focus of this study.
This study is based on the third part Censura of the lexicographical work Nomenclator Eliae Levitae Germani (Franeker: Albert 1652), revised by the scholar Johannes Drusius. Censura (pp. 48–234) contains 796 Latin and Hebrew dictionary entries from the Old Testament. Those entries are brief comparisons between the three Linguae sacrae Latin, Greek and Hebrew or present a longer discussion on the respective words in Latin. This article focuses on those Dutch and Low-German variants which Drusius labeled in 26 articles as regional variants, namely Saxon (in fact Low-Saxon), Flandric (Flemish region), Frisian, Sicambric (Lower Rhine region), Batavian (Lower Rhine region) and Hollandic. The study analyses regional variants in the context of their word entries and in regard to their grammatical distinctions. The inclusion of the regional variants by Drusius is not systematic, but their presentation probably aimed at didactic purposes and, in some cases, towards a better understanding of etymological relations.
Over the past decade, steady progress has been made in identifying the Latin witnesses to the Homiliary of Angers; however, no new copies of its Old English rendition have surfaced. The singular source of information about the vernacular adaptation and dissemination of this important preaching resource in Anglo-Saxon England remains the Taunton Fragment (Taunton, Somerset County Record Office, DD/SAS C/1193/77), two bifolia of unknown origin and uncertain date. The previous discussions, which centered around orthography, morphology, and morphosyntax, determined that the Taunton Fragment is a copy produced towards the end of the Old English period, probably deriving from an Anglian archetype. To complement these findings, the present study focuses on lexis. A close examination of the two layers of the Taunton Fragment’s vocabulary—the lexemes which primarily occur in texts of Anglian origin or exhibiting the influence of Anglian works and the lexemes which typically replace obsolescent lexis in late copies of Old English material—supports the hypothesis that the Old English translation preserved in the Taunton Fragment is a copy descending from an Anglian archetype produced in a scriptorium dominated by the late West-Saxon writing tradition in the second half of the eleventh century.