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Hughes Félicité Robert de Lammenais

Edited by Sylvain Milbach and Richard Lebrun

Lamennais: A Believer’s Revolutionary Politics, edited by Richard A Lebrun, offers English translations (by Lebrun and Jerry Ryan) of the most influential and controversial writings of Félicité de Lamennais, a French priest who began his career as a Traditionalist, became the founder of Liberal Catholicism in the early 1830s, and then left the Church after his ideas were condemned by Rome. Sylvain Milbach’s comprehensive Introduction and Annotations place these writings in the context of the author’s intellectual history and the political, religious, and intellectual situation in France in the first half of the 19th century.

Lamennais challenged traditional religious, political, and social thinking, leaving a fiercely debated reputation. The writings translated here allow 21st-century readers to judge him for themselves.

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Roberto Romani

The moderate sensibility, encapsulating the marriage between monarchical patriotism and Catholicism, was set forth before 1848. This chapter begins by tracing the origins of that sensibility back to eighteenth-century moral philosophy, and in particular to the Italian Catholic Aufklärung of Muratori and Genovesi. The bearing of Stoic arguments on these authors is pointed out. Sections 2 and 3 are devoted to Rosmini, who, through a denunciation of revolutionary and Romantic passions, laid the groundwork for the moderate sensibility. The chapter next examines the contributions of Manzoni, Pellico, and Tommaseo. These ‘philosophical Catholics’ advocated fortitude and endurance, but also argued that Catholics should fight for justice by peaceful means. Sections 5 and 6 deal with the moderates of the 1840s, namely Gioberti, d’Azeglio, and Balbo. They condemned passions and Machiavellianism, and emphasised virtue and rational self-possession. The chapter then returns to the issue of sources, by considering the impact of Alfieri and the Doctrinaires on the moderate sensibility (Sect. 7).

Series:

Roberto Romani

This chapter addresses the political moderatism of the 1840s. Yet, the chapter begins with an account of Romagnosi’s constitutional project (1815), in order to indicate that, in principle, monarchical patriotism might have organised around an alternative cultural perspective, feeding on the ways of thinking of the Enlightenment. Sections 2 and 3 deal with Gioberti’s, Balbo’s, and d’Azeglio’s thought, focusing on their peculiar blend of cautious reformism and grand philosophical vision, as well as on their suspicion of parties and pluralism. In Section 4, their liberal credentials are compared with those of Constant, Guizot, Cattaneo, and other Italians. Section 5 reviews the three moderates’ interpretation of the republican communes of the Middle Ages. The chapter next examines how moderatism evolved over the 1840s; basically, it became less prudent and more confrontational as the broad consensus following the publication of Gioberti’s Primato and the election of Pius ix broke down. The chapter concludes with two sections exploring the sources of political moderatism, highlighting Chateaubriand in Section 7, and the ultramontane authors in Section 8.

Act of Union

15 November 1831

Series:

Edited by Richard A. Lebrun and Sylvain Milbach

Other Sylvain Milbach

Translator Richard A. Lebrun and Jerry Ryan

Series:

Edited by Richard A. Lebrun and Sylvain Milbach

Other Sylvain Milbach

Translator Richard A. Lebrun and Jerry Ryan

Farewell from M. de Lamennais

15 November 1831

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Edited by Richard A. Lebrun and Sylvain Milbach

Other Sylvain Milbach

Translator Richard A. Lebrun and Jerry Ryan

On Freedom

23 May 1831

Series:

Edited by Richard A. Lebrun and Sylvain Milbach

Other Sylvain Milbach

Translator Richard A. Lebrun and Jerry Ryan

Series:

Edited by Richard A. Lebrun and Sylvain Milbach

Other Sylvain Milbach

Translator Richard A. Lebrun and Jerry Ryan

On Religious Freedom

30 August 1831

Series:

Edited by Richard A. Lebrun and Sylvain Milbach

Other Sylvain Milbach

Translator Richard A. Lebrun and Jerry Ryan