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Volume Two: Uses of History in Constitutional Adjudication
Constitutions are a product of history, but what is the role of history in interpreting and applying constitutional provisions? This volume addresses that question from a comparative perspective, examining different uses of history by courts in determining constitutional meaning. The book shows that there is considerable debate around the role of history in constitutional adjudication. Are, for example, historical public debates over the adoption of a constitution relevant to reading its provisions today? If a constitution represents a break from a prior repressive regime, should courts construe the constitution’s provisions in light of that background? Are former constitutions relevant to interpreting a new constitution? Through an assessment of current practices the volume offers some lessons for the future practices of courts as they adjudicate constitutional cases.

Contributors are: Mark D. Rosen, Jorge M. Farinacci-Fernós, Justin Collings, Jean-Christophe Bédard-Rubin, Cem Tecimer, Ángel Aday Jiménez Alemán, Ana Beatriz Robalinho, Keigo Obayashi, Zoltán Szente, Shih-An Wang, and Diego Werneck Arguelhes.
Author: Zamira Xhaferri
This book examines the law and practice of the delegation of rulemaking powers to the European Commission. It combines legal doctrine with empirical research methods to bridge the gap between “law on the books” and “law in action” to fully appreciate the meaning and the impact of the changes post-Lisbon. The results of the empirical case study provide food for thought on how the current legal framework regime for delegated rulemaking by the European Commission could be improved. The findings seek to contribute to the academic and policy debates on this research topic that is likely to continue in forthcoming years.
Author: Noah Vardi
What constitutes the core values, tenets, cultural, historic, and ideological parameters of secularism in international contexts? In twelve chapters, this edited work examines current tensions in liberal secular states where myriad rights and freedoms compete regarding education, healthcare, end-of-life choices, clothing, sexual orientation, reproduction, and minority interests. It explores the legal complexity of defining a ‘religion’ through judicial decisions and scrutinises Christianity, Hinduism and Islam’s relative success in accommodating religious pluralism.

Part One explores the religious practice and persecution nexus, COVID-19’s effect on religious freedom, religious education, burqas/headscarves, and religious culture in civil law. Part Two explores the constitutional principle of secularism in Member States of the Council of Europe, US Religious Clauses, and religious freedom in South Africa, UK, Australia, and India.
The dynamic processes of ordering we are witnessing around the world blend the extra-national with the national, the public with the private, the political and economic with the social and cultural. Issues of effectiveness, procedural and substantial justice, costs, incentives, voice, and inequality in these processes are growing in importance. This series aims to grasp these phenomena channeling them into the legal debate.

The series publishes books, authored or edited, covering various aspects of private, public, criminal, transnational and global law. The broad ambition of the series underlines the editors' belief that in the legal world there is a growing need to expand our knowledge of legal orders (national or supranational, official and unofficial), of their historical roots and of their practical dimensions.
This series critically examines issues of legal doctrine and practice in Central and Eastern Europe, including studies on the harmonization of legal principles and rules; the legal impact of the intertwining of domestic economies, on the one hand, with regional economies and the processes of international trade and investment on the other. The series offers a forum for discussion of topical questions of public and private law from domestic, regional, and international perspectives. Comparative research that provides insights in legal developments that can be communicated to those interested in questions, not only of law, but also of politics, economics, and of society of countries in the region also finds a home in the series.

For information about a related title, visit the webpages of the Brill journal Review of Central and East European Law.
Author: Nino Tsereteli

Abstract

This article investigates the formal and informal factors behind the persistence of judicial oligarchies in post-communist countries despite large-scale reforms. This case study on Georgia reveals that formal positions of power in these judiciaries can be monopolized by a close-knit group, with a handful of influential judges (i.e. judicial oligarchs) at the top of its hierarchical structure. Drawing on in-depth interviews with sitting as well as former judges and other stakeholders of reform processes, the article attributes the failure to dismantle the rule of judicial oligarchs at least partly to legislative flaws and loopholes. More importantly, it warns about the reliance of judicial oligarchs on informal rules and practices to undermine formal rules and procedures meant to facilitate the meaningful participation of all judges in governing the judiciary. It uncovers informal mechanisms allowing the network of powerful judges to suppress the emergence of competing judicial networks and cement itself into leadership positions. Finally, the article reflects on the implications of these findings for designing and implementing judicial reforms in Georgia and beyond.

In: Review of Central and East European Law

Abstract

This article addresses the issue of rights consciousness in the context of the Hungarian legal culture. The paper first elaborates the theoretical and conceptual framework, then it describes the research design used for the empirical investigation. The empirical section of the article presents the findings about the Hungarian empirical analysis on rights consciousness with some comparative remarks, and then it reflects on the historically shaped socio-legal embeddedness of rights consciousness patterns in Hungary. In conclusion, the paper points out that the apparent broadening of rights consciousness as a normative pattern may counterbalance the widespread legal alienation rooted in the state Socialist past. Whether this transformation may mitigate the recent autocratic power aspirations is still an open question.

In: Review of Central and East European Law
Author: Aldar Chirninov

Abstract

This article examines the landmark Aliev case decided by the Russian Constitutional Court in 2020. In this case, the Constitutional Court was expected to determine whether jurors must be prohibited from testifying about the outside influence they were subjected to during deliberation. The paper discusses what is right and wrong with the Constitutional Court’s judgment and assesses the quality of its argumentation. The paper explores how the Constitutional Court’s approach compares and contrasts with other countries’ approaches and briefly outlines the structure of legislative reforms that need to be undertaken in Russia in the light of foreign experience. Overall, the author concludes that the integrity of jurors in Russia should be protected not by enabling jurors to testify at their discretion but by strengthening their legal immunity, which will strike an optimal balance between competing constitutional values.

In: Review of Central and East European Law
Legal Remedies for the Protection of Cross-border Properties
The Polish dispute on an adequate approach towards the Białowieża Forest has been significantly internationalised, primarily by UNESCO and the European Union. The judgment of the CJEU has not settled the substance of the dispute, although it points to a violation of EU legal standards. The authors of The Disputed Białowieża Forest: Legal Remedies for the Protection of Cross-border Properties address the dispute in a constructive and interdisciplinary manner, rather than merely expressing concern towards in situ conservation, and derive universal legal remedies from it. They conclude that in the case of unique invaluable goods, adequate individual solutions should be applied in the form of a localised agreement, open to many entities (interested states, international organisations and even socially responsible private corporations), on the condition that organisational and financial co-responsibility are accepted.