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This volume of Annotated Legal Documents on Islam in Europe covers Hungary and consists of an annotated collection of legal documents affecting the status of Islam and Muslims. The legal texts are published in the original Hungarian language while the annotations and supporting material are in English. By legal documents are meant the texts of legislation, including relevant secondary legislation, as well as significant court decisions. Each legal text is preceded by an introduction describing the historical, political and legal circumstances of its adoption, plus a short paragraph summarising its content. The focus of the collection is on the religious dimensions of being Muslim in Europe, i.e. on individuals' access to practise their religious obligations and on the ability to organise and manifest their religious life.
In Hajj Travelogues: Texts and Contexts from the 12th Century until 1950 Richard van Leeuwen maps the corpus of hajj accounts from the Muslim world and Europe. The work outlines the main issues in a field of study which has largely been neglected. A large number of hajj travelogues are described as a textual type integrating religious discourse into the form of the journey. Special attention is given to their intertextual embedding in the broader discursive tradition of the hajj. Since the corpus is seen as dynamic and responsive to historical developments, the texts are situated in their historical context and the subsequent phases of globalisation. It is shown how in travelogues forms of religious subjectivity are constructed and expressed.
The Yearbook of Muslims in Europe is an essential resource for analysis of Europe's dynamic Muslim populations. Featuring up-to-date research from forty-three European countries, this comprehensive reference work summarises significant activities, trends, and developments within those communities.

Each new volume reports on the most current information available from surveyed countries, offering an annual overview of statistical and demographic data, topical issues of public debate, shifting transnational networks, change to domestic policies and legal frameworks, and major activities in Muslim organisations and institutions. Supplementary data is gathered from a variety of sources and evaluated according to its reliability.

In addition to offering a relevant framework for original research, the Yearbook of Muslims in Europe provides an invaluable source of reference for government and NGO officials, journalists, policymakers, and related research institutions.
The three-volume series titled The Presence of the Prophet in Early Modern and Contemporary Islam, is the first attempt to explore the dynamics of the representation of the Prophet Muhammad in the course of Muslim history until the present.
The Intersection of Ethics, Health and Social Life in the Diaspora
This volume brings together diverse disciplinary perspectives to provide a multidisciplinary and multidimensional account of Muslim ethics operating in the COVID-19 era, where scriptural values, lived experiences, societal structures, and cultural contexts combine in fresh and diverse ways. Indeed, Islamic ethical evaluation often ignores contributions from the social sciences, and contextual factors are not fully understood when issuing Islamic edicts. This volume thus aims at a more connected account of how religious concerns generated challenges and how Muslims lived out their religious values during the pandemic. Alongside descriptive accounts are normative evaluations, and insights from interviews are connected with survey analyses; in this way, the chapters render a more complete account of the intersectional engagement of Muslim healthcare professionals and community members living in minority contexts with the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Abstract

This article highlights how the COVID-19 pandemic affected the daily experiences of a small group of African-American Muslims. Discussion points focused on changes in lifestyle habits regarding food shopping, healthcare, housing, and religious practice. Many participants expressed concern that the risk of contracting the virus was a real threat in public spaces. Food shopping practices changed when the risk of infection was perceived to be high or when food supplies in retail stores dwindled. Reliance on virtual health consultations rose, and even in-person healthcare visits were impacted by social distancing. For most, shopping and healthcare involved virtual meetings and ordering through online shopping services. Although for most respondents housing was not a critical issue, improvement in housing conditions was restricted by the pandemic. The suspension of in-person worship services and substituted virtual worship practices generated uncertainty as to the religiosity of those practices. This concern was expressed most frequently as to those worship services that were centered on communal activities.

In: Islam, Muslims, and COVID-19

Abstract

From restrictions on public gatherings and travel, to masking regulations and the closure of businesses, policymakers craft various social policies and legal mandates to mitigate COVID-19 disease spread and impact. Religious practices have also been subject to constraints, insofar as they contribute to social life and inform COVID-19-related behaviors. From Friday prayers and burial rites to vaccines and healthcare, Muslims have sought guidance about how to maintain religious identity in the face of the constraints on social activities. As such, this chapter examines how public health and religion-related values intersected in the Islamic bioethical guidance offered by the US-based National Muslim Task Force on COVID-19. It begins by describing the context, personnel, and procedures by which the Fiqh Committee of the National Muslim Task Force on COVID-19 came to be and deliberated. Next, it analyzes the ways in biomedical data, state authority mandates, and Islamic ethico-legal imperatives integrated to furnish guidance on congregational prayer services and vaccine uptake to mosque leaders and community members. This section also describes contentions over the applicability of maṣlaḥa (public interest), ḍarūra (dire necessity), ḥifz al-nafs (preservation of life), and ḥifz al-dīn (preservation of religion) in the COVID-19 context. The final section reflects on the discursive gaps between policymakers, religious scholars, and public health professionals, and the need for multidisciplinary engagement in Islamic bioethical deliberation.

In: Islam, Muslims, and COVID-19
Author:

Abstract

This chapter provides insight into how Islamic school leaders responded to the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on the instructional methods, enrollment, and finances of full-time Islamic schools. The author’s unique positionality as the executive director of the Islamic Schools League of America (ISLA), a nonprofit that supports full-time Islamic schools in the United States, allows for this discussion to be informed by both personal insights and research-based findings. Specifically, the author draws upon emails exchanged on ISLA’s email listserv and three surveys administered to US Islamic school principals. Wherein the emails provide an insiders’ perspective to the evolution of COVID-19 as experienced by Islamic school leaders, the survey data reveals the impact of COVID-19 on Islamic schools in relation to enrollment, instruction, and finances. The author argues that the cumulative insights and data illustrate school leaders’ agility to respond to an ever-changing crisis and the resilience of full-time US Islamic schools as an important Muslim American institution. The chapter concludes with the author’s reflections on how Islamic schools can continue to thrive in unstable and unpredictable environments, including the call for innovative and distinctive schools and more broad-based support for Islamic education in America.

In: Islam, Muslims, and COVID-19

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic created turmoil for American healthcare, as it greatly disturbed existing initiatives to help the minority, underserved, and immigrant populations with access to care and exacerbated pre-existing income disparities and poverty. Many Americans struggled with unemployment and loss of healthcare coverage. Those who received healthcare under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) had increased insurance premiums due to tax incentives under pandemic relief packages. The ACA should be able to cover all Americans’ healthcare needs, but the lack of education about its advantages, confusion on eligibility, and lack of health literacy all limited its utility and worsened the pandemic’s health disparities.

While pandemic stimulus packages assisted with monthly bills, they raised the annual incomes for taxpayers. Self-employed individuals were unable to claim expenses for their businesses, placing them in a higher federal poverty level (FPL) and forcing them to either lose some or all of the Advanced Premium Tax Credit (APTC) benefits under ACA. Healthcare coverage data comparisons from Worry Free Community reveal that more people wanted to remain uninsured during the pandemic than pre-pandemic. Further analysis also suggests lack of health and financial systems literacy within immigrant groups are key factors contributing to the higher uninsured rates.

In: Islam, Muslims, and COVID-19

Abstract

Many of the world’s 1.8 billion Muslims fast during the month of Ramadan, abstaining from all food and drink from dawn to dusk—which, in some parts of the world, can be for up to nineteen hours. The peak of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK coincided with the start of Ramadan, which took place in April–May 2020. This was also during a period of a government-imposed lockdown in which social and communal activities were severely restricted.

In the UK, home to approximately 3 million Muslims, many of whom fast during Ramadan, the Muslim community disproportionately suffered from the impacts of COVID-19 over multiple waves of the pandemic. While some commentators have sought to explain this disproportionate impact with reference to “Muslim cultural practices” particularly during Ramadan, others have pointed to structural factors which have result in increased risk, for example, members of the Muslim community being over-represented in higher risk and public-facing jobs, being more likely to experience poorer living conditions, and existing inequalities in access to, uptake of, and experience within healthcare services, all of which increase exposure and affect coping with infection from the SARS CoV-2 virus. In this chapter, we examine the contextual factors leading to health disparities among Muslims in the UK, and how they have played out during the COVID-19 pandemic. We then specifically consider whether ritual fasting during Ramadan contributed to inequalities. We finally assert that structural factors largely explain the disproportionate impacts on Muslims observed in the early stages of the pandemic.

In: Islam, Muslims, and COVID-19