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Discretionary implementation and street-level bureaucracy
How much discretion do bureaucrats have when deciding who gets refugee status? Where does the boundary between law and practice lie when it comes to asylum in the European Union? In this book, you will find answers to these questions in an exploration of the decision-making context in which policy implementors conduct their work and turn policies into practice. Drawing from the insights of street-level bureaucracy and role-conflict theory, a better understanding is given of how decisions are made by policy implementers in situations of incomplete information or ambiguous policy vision and guidance.
The Baltic Yearbook of International Law is published under the auspices of the Baltic Editorial Board within the framework of cooperation between the Riga Graduate School of Law and Brill/Nijhoff Publishers. The Yearbook aims to bring to the international debate issues of importance in the Baltic States, providing a forum for views on topical international law themes from Baltic and international scholars. The first volume appeared in 2001 with a symposium on the question of the international legal status of the Baltic States.

The Yearbook contains state practice reports from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and thus serves as an important source of international law unavailable elsewhere.

From time to time the Yearbook offers articles discussing the history of international law and current issues in Eastern Europe and the Russian Federation, thus making regional discourse more accessible to a wider global audience.

Volume 22 starts with a symposium, based on the European Society of International Law’s "Regional Developments of International Law in Eastern Europe and Post-Soviet Eurasia" research forum, which was held on 27-28 April 2023 at the University of Tartu, Estonia. The general articles section in this volume is a case study of Latvia’s response to the migration crisis on the Latvia-Belarus border.
This book explores the independence of international civil servants across various intergovernmental institutions. With rich historical insights and in-depth analysis, Tavadian uncovers the complex evolution of this independence, from its early days to contemporary challenges and practices. Drawing on his vast experience and meticulous research, he critically assesses the essential role of international civil service independence in ensuring effective international cooperation and proposes concrete solutions for strengthening it. An indispensable resource for scholars, policymakers, and legal practitioners, it sheds light on the nuanced dynamics that underpin the operation and integrity of international organizations.
Editor:
This volume contains the texts of written pleadings, minutes of public sittings and other documents from the proceedings concerning the Request for an Advisory Opinion submitted by the Commission of Small Island States on Climate Change and International Law (Request for Advisory Opinion submitted to the Tribunal). The documents are reproduced in their original language.

The Advisory Opinion of 21 May 2024 is published in the ITLOS Reports 2024.

Le présent volume reproduit les pièces de la procédure écrite, les procès-verbaux des audiences publiques et d’autres documents relatifs à la procédure concernant la Demande d’avis consultatif soumise par la Commission des petits États insulaires sur le changement climatique et le droit international (Demande d’avis consultatif soumise au Tribunal). Les documents sont publiés dans la langue originale utilisée.

L’avis consultatif du 21 mai 2024 est publié dans le TIDM Recueil 2024.

Includes ISBN's Vol 1: 978-90-04-71395-6; Vol 2: 978-90-04-71396-3; Vol 3: 978-90-04-71397-0
Author:
While the Security Council has been mandating peacekeepers to protect civilians since 1999, there is still contention on its legal meaning. Even though the concept of ‘protection’ can seem self-evident, as the concept of ‘protection’ is borrowed language, each body of law will perceive ‘protection’ through a different lens. However, as the mandate creates a legal obligation on UN peace missions, a clear understanding of protection is fundamental to ensure performance and accountability.
The South Caucasus Disputes between Self-Determination, Territorial Integrity, and the Quest for a European Engagement Policy
This book examines secessionist entities that arose during and after the dissolution process of the USSR and considers them as legal subjects in their own right. By employing a novel and more innovative approach, the agency of these subjects, otherwise often ignored or disregarded, is taken into account. Drawing on the cases of the South Caucasus, the author suggests going beyond the binary concept of statehood and traditional notions of sovereignty. He advocates embracing an inclusive reading of international law, which enables to foster creative ambiguity vis-à-vis these entities as means of conflict transformation.
Statehood, territory and international spaces are at the heart of a specific branch of international law: the international law of territory. International territorial disputes and their settlement are examined from the standpoint of legal titles: acquisition and loss of territorial sovereignty, use of force (annexation, conquest), the right of peoples to self-determination (and secession), ius cogens norms. The existence, among others, of de facto states, puppet states, ‘drowning’ and ‘failed’ States shows the Protean character of statehood. Peculiar territorial regimes are likewise examined: international administration, leases, servitudes, protectorates, international cities and territories, as well as the League of Nations Mandates and the United Nations Trusteeship system.
Editor:
The ITLOS Yearbook 2023 provides information on the composition and organization of the Tribunal and reports on its judicial activities in 2023, in particular concerning Cases Nos. 28 and 31. The Yearbook is prepared by the Registry of the Tribunal.

Le TIDM Annuaire 2023 fournit des informations sur la composition et l’organisation du Tribunal et rend compte des activités judiciaires de celui-ci au cours de l’année 2023, en particulier en ce qui concerne les affaires Nos. 28 et 31. L’Annuaire est préparé par le Greffe du Tribunal.
The Ius Comparatum series covers all areas of law. It contains the general reports as well as the national and special reports of the General Congresses and Thematic Congresses of the International Academy of Comparative Law as well as publications related to the Academy’s activities. The books are published in English and French.