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In: Journal of American-East Asian Relations
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In: Journal of American-East Asian Relations
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Abstract

From 1944 to 1945, the U.S. Department of War contracted with six universities, including Stanford University, to operate Civil Affairs Training Schools (cats) for the Far Eastern theaters. Their mission was to prepare U.S Army and U.S. Navy officers with assignments to administer civil affairs in the anticipated occupation of Japan. This article focuses on two groups of “informants” that Stanford University sourced for language and area study instruction in its cats program – first, Christian missionaries repatriated to North America after spending many years in Japan and second, Nisei (second-generation Japanese Americans) recruits from War Department incarceration camps. In response to Stanford University’s inquiries, nearly 130 missionaries shared their first-hand experiences in Japan and offered suggestions on how civil affairs officers should engage with the Japanese. Some of these suggestions showed Christian biases that led to mixed reactions among the Stanford staff. Despite the challenge of bringing persons of Japanese ancestry to a campus with the U.S. government’s exclusion orders in place, Stanford University managed to hire 23 Nisei as “language informants.” Their work, however, largely consisted of leading language drills for student officers as “native speakers” rather than providing expert knowledge. This article highlights the circumstances and issues around the U.S. military’s use of missionaries and second-generation immigrants for their linguistic and cultural knowledge of the enemy.

In: Journal of American-East Asian Relations
In: Journal of American-East Asian Relations
Author:

Abstract

Mary West Niles and Annetta Thompson Mills both came to China in the 1880s, but under quite different circumstances. Both founded schools for handicapped children, one in Guangzhou (Canton) for blind girls, the other in Dengzhou and Chifu for deaf boys. This article compares the two missionaries and their schools, and then delves into the reasons for the near-coincidences in time and purpose. At the same time, it considers the question of the “American Protestant Empire,” the idea that missionaries who thought they were doing good for China were actually furthering U.S. imperialistic purposes. It also considers the strong contributions that Chinese charities and the Chinese government made in supporting their efforts. However one chooses to assess them, one important legacy of both enterprises was the training of Chinese personnel, who adapted the new techniques to Chinese language and circumstances. One still can find traces of the old schools today, although in most ways the old order has been left behind.

In: Journal of American-East Asian Relations
Author:
From the French origin of Coca-Cola to McDonald’s sponsorship of the 2015 Milan Expo, the book presents the first comparative history of these multinational corporations in two Western European countries, addressing some compelling questions: to what extent our increasingly globalized world is persistently shaped by forms of American hegemony, and what are some of the forces that have been most effective at challenging the relationship between Americanization and globalization? Through the local history of global companies, the book tells a new story about not only the influence of American businesses in Europe but also the influence of European governments and societies on those American businesses and their adaptability.