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In this book, we reclaim the term “resistance” by exploring how animals can “resist” their commodification through blocking and allowing human intervention in their lives. In the cases explored in this volume, animals lead humans to rethink their relationship to animals by either blocking and/or allowing human commodification. In some cases, this results in greater control exercised on the animals, while in others, animals’ resistance also poses a series of complex moral questions to human commodifiers, sometimes to the point of transforming humans into active members of resistance movements on behalf of animals.

Abstract

For primates, canopy bridges can reduce the road barrier effect. Yet little information exists to predict species bridge use. We examined bridge use across a 9 km suburban road in Diani, Kenya, in three survey years (N bridges: 21 = 2004, 27 = 2011, 29 = 2020) by four sympatric species of monkeys. The asphalt road is 6 m wide with a 50 km/h speed limit. Roadside observers recorded ground (N=4931) and bridge (N=3413) crossings, crossing direction, and traffic volume. Colobus (Colobus angolensis palliatus), Sykes’ monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis albogularis), and vervets (Chlorocebus pygerythrus hilgerti) used the bridges while baboons (Papio cynocephalus cynocephalus) rarely did. Crossing rates (Sykes’>vervet>colobus>baboon) did not fit our predictions based on species’ attributes of stratum preference (arboreal>terrestrial) or body mass (small>large), while the interaction between these attributes was more informative. Crossings were bidirectional. Colobus crossed bridges during higher traffic volumes than on the ground, whereas we found the opposite for vervets. Sykes’ monkeys crossed at similar traffic volumes on the ground and bridges. The mean annual bridge cost was USD 157, deriving a cost per crossing as < USD 0.10, though it undervalues the savings in ecosystem services, tourism benefits, and contributions to protecting colobus, a vulnerable species. While we consider this highly economical, funders and road engineers will ultimately determine if it is so.

Open Access
In: Folia Primatologica

Abstract

Roads disrupt the canopy and can affect arboreal animals in different ways, such as reducing canopy connectivity, generating habitat loss and degradation, and increasing direct mortality. Since arboreal animals mainly use the canopy for movement, mitigation measures for these species usually focus on maintaining or restoring canopy connectivity to guarantee safe crossings. Here we present a case study of a Brazilian coastal road (ES-060) for which we described the use of a canopy bridge and multiple underpasses by three arboreal mammal species and compared these data with roadkill records of the same species in the vicinity of the crossing structures. Our study includes a 75 m long steel cable canopy bridge, monitored for 3 years, and clusters of different types of underpasses, monitored for 16 years. The use of the crossing structures was monitored with sand track beds installed at entrances on both sides, and roadkill surveys were conducted daily for 16 years. We considered a crossing to be successful if tracks of the same species were recorded on either side of a structure and showed opposite movement trajectories. The canopy bridge survey resulted in an observed rate of 0.16 crossings/month for Callithrix geoffroyi, 7.79 for Coendou insidiosus, and 0.46 for Didelphis aurita, and all types of underpasses combined demonstrated a rate of 0.33, 1.94, and 8.43 crossings/month for each species, respectively. The roadkill surveys resulted in an observed rate of 1.41, 0.78, 2.94 roadkills/month for Callithrix geoffroyi, Coendou insidiosus, and Didelphis aurita, respectively. Even with mitigation structures confirmed to be used by these three species, roadkill hotspots occurred in the road sections with the crossing structures. Our study demonstrated the use of a canopy bridge and different types of underpasses by arboreal mammal species. The canopy bridge was mostly used by Coendou insidiosus, while the underpasses were mainly used by Didelphis aurita. As roadkill hotspots occurred red in the same segments where mitigation crossing structures were installed, our results indicate that some important improvements are needed to mitigate roadkills of arboreal mammals in this area, mainly preventing that these species access the road. We present recommendations for a research agenda to support mitigation planning for arboreal mammals, namely: (1) testing the efficiency of different canopy bridge designs for multispecies mitigation, (2) testing the use of connecting structures, such as ropes that connect to the surrounding forest, to encourage underpass use by arboreal species, and (3) testing fence adaptations to block the access of arboreal mammals to roads.

In: Folia Primatologica

Abstract

South Africa’s extensive linear infrastructure network (which includes roads and power lines) is severely impacting the country’s historically recognised five primate species: greater or thick-tailed bushbaby (Otolemur crassicaudatus), southern lesser bushbaby (Galago moholi), chacma baboon (Papio ursinus), vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) and samango monkey (Cercopithecus albogularis). We present South African mortality data from two different linear infrastructure types on a country wide scale, over a long-term sampling period. Using primate road mortality and power line electrocution data acquired from different data sources, we compare and discuss different mortality data collection methodologies, the resulting data quality and identify current limitations in understanding the direct impacts of linear infrastructure which have important implications for primate conservation planning. Between 1996-2021 a total of 483 primate mortalities were recorded on roads and power lines, the majority on the former. Vervet monkeys were most severely impacted by both linear infrastructure types whereas lesser bushbabies experienced the least number of mortalities. Both data sets showed numerous incidents where more than one individual was killed (roadkill: 4%, up to four killed in one incident; electrocutions: 13%, up to six killed in one incident). GPS coordinates were available for 61% of roadkill records and for 65% of electrocution records. Age or sex of carcasses were not available for electrocution records and only available for 11% of roadkill records. Although South Africa leads the African continent regarding roadkill and electrocution data collection, there are still areas in the collection protocol that can be improved and projects implementing mitigation measures (e.g. canopy bridges) to reduce primate roadkill are lacking. We argue that the mortality data presented here should form the basis for future mitigation implementation and recommend that linear infrastructure be more prominently recognised as a direct threat when developing national and international Red Lists.

In: Folia Primatologica
In: Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research
Free access
In: Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research

Abstract

Although morphological variation may have an effect on behaviour, there are only a few studies on julid millipedes in which the influence of the variability of some morphological traits on mating success has been explored. Hence, objectives of this study were to investigate mating behaviour in laboratory conditions and identify traits that could possibly be the target of pre-copulatory selection in the julid species Megaphyllum unilineatum. Behavioural sequences were quantified in three types of tests: a mating arena test, a female choice test, and a male choice test. Although the number of contacts with the first chosen partner (from the mating arena test) was greater than with newly offered individuals in choice tests, values of the sexual selection coefficient did not statistically confirm this preference. In addition, analyses of linear measurements (trunk height and width, length of the whole body, antennae, walking legs, and gonopod flagella) in individuals of different mating status were also conducted, as well as geometric morphometric analyses of size and shape of the antennae, heads, walking legs, and gonopod promeres and opisthomeres in such individuals. Antennal length and shape, head shape, and the walking legs shape, differed significantly, depending on the mating status of females. In males of different mating status, statistical significance was established only in the promere centroid size. The differences in certain behavioural sequences in M. unilineatum are similar to those previously reported in M. bosniense, while such similarity is not detected with respect to morphological variation in the mentioned species.

Open Access
In: Contributions to Zoology

Abstract

Forest fragmentation has resulted in a breakdown in connectivity for arboreal species. Effects of fragmentation are particularly acute in forest patches in densely populated countries, resulting in high mortality in many species attempting to cross roads to travel between forest patches. We evaluated the use of three, single-line artificial canopy bridges made of polypropylene ropes in a forest patch in northeastern Bangladesh. Camera traps were used to determine the extent of bridge use by different species. A total of 1060 events of bridge use by mammals were observed using our artificial canopy bridges over the 157 camera trap days. Eight mammal species, including five primate species, two squirrel species and one palm civet species were recorded using the bridges at varying levels of frequency. The location of the bridge and season influenced bridge use. We did not observe mortality of mammals from road accidents or electrocution during the study period. We suggest that artificial canopy bridges increased connectivity between forest patches and reduced mortality from road accidents and electrocution. We strongly recommend the use of this and other, simple canopy bridges to prevent mortality of arboreal mammals.

In: Folia Primatologica
In: Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research

Abstract

Many molecular phylogenetic studies conclude by reporting discoveries of new “cryptic” species. However, these putative biological entities are typically left unverified outside of the dna evidence or subjected to only superficial post-hoc analyses. Minute land snails of the Western Palearctic Pyramidula represent one of such examples being considered a cryptic species complex based on previously conducted molecular phylogeny. Several species appear indistinguishable due to noticeable shell tendency towards either high-spired (Pyramidula rupestris and P. jaenensis) or low-spired (P. saxatilis and P. pusilla) morphotype. Here, we challenge this conclusion by using mt DNA, n DNA, morphometric analyses and qualitative shell features, and seek for a potential evolutionary mechanism behind the conchological similarities. Through an empirical integration of multiple data types we document that the studied taxa can be visually distinguished. Unlike isolated shell measurements, cva s based on traditional morphometrics and geometric morphometrics have power to separate all species from each other, except for P. saxatilis and P. pusilla. However, only a use of previously overlooked shell surface microsculpture makes it possible to identify individuals of all species. Considering tight associations between shell measurements and climate, we propose an evolutionary explanation based on optimization of thermal flux under different climatic selection pressures. Our study brings the awareness towards microscopic shell features, and outlines a general protocol to identify robust visual identification criteria in taxonomic groups containing cryptic (and non-cryptic) members. It also exemplifies an integration of various data types for macroscale species identification, which we believe should follow any discovery of putatively cryptic species.

Open Access
In: Contributions to Zoology