The lunar cycle influences the behaviours of life forms across multiple phyla, including humans. Tides are perhaps the most observable effect of the moon. The moon exerts a surprising impact on animals through reflected fluctuations in light levels. Early works on the lunar effect were primarily observations. The interpretation of natural light by animals to adjust their physiology and behaviour has been enigmatic for a long time. In Platynereis, rOpsin1 senses the moonrise. A molecule called L-cryptochrome (L-Cry) can distinguish between moon phases and sun and moonlight. L-Cry distinguishes the proper valence of moonlight and thus entrains the circalunar clock to regulate reproduction. The lunar effects influence animals through hormones such as melatonin, GnRH, and some steroids. Interestingly, several genes have been revealed to constitute the genetic basis of lunar effects. The present communication provides a succinct account of lunar-mediated effects on animals, including our species.
Hedychium gardnerianum Sheppard ex Ker Gawl. (Zingiberacea) is newly recorded from southwest China, which stretching its eastern natural distribution range. A full description of the species and a color plate showing diagnostic features of the species, as well as taxonomic and distributional notes are provided here.
Oncocyclus is a large group of bearded irises with poorly known phylogeny and evolutionary history. In Israel, Iris sect. Oncocyclus comprises eight species belonging to three aggregates. We used a combination of approaches to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of these species and indicate the evolutionary forces responsible for their origin. We sequenced the whole chloroplast genomes of species and integrated a phylogenetic tree with results of genetic (AFLP) divergence, degree of reproductive isolation, and species distribution modeling. Our findings suggest that quantitative and even qualitative morphological characters, such as flower color, are unreliable diagnostic traits for Oncocyclus taxonomy; that some recognized species comprise more than one species; and that group evolution did not involve the origin of distinct flower aggregates. A lack of pre-zygotic reproductive isolation agrees with the very low variability of the Oncocyclus plastome, suggesting that Israeli Oncocyclus species are very young. Homoploid hybridization followed or preceded by long periods of geographic isolation, and local selection likely contributed to speciation in Oncocyclus. In the group evolutionary history, importance of homoploid hybridization and local selection differed among species, but limited gene flow played a crucial role for all species.
Araceae is a large family widely distributed worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Members of Araceae have a characteristic inflorescence and they also possess various morphologies. There were many taxonomic confusions based on the botanist's views on the taxonomic status of Araceae members. This review provides information about application of molecular markers in studying taxonomy of the Araceae species, especially in Vietnam. Furthermore, it includes illustrative photos of all aroids species in Vietnam identified using molecular markers.
This article rests upon two kinds of deductions: first a lack of scholarly engagement within cultural constructs of religion in mainstream social movement studies; and the second, the quasi-religious aspects of occupy-like movement. These two problematics, one theoretical, and one ethnographic, are drawn together through Edith Turner’s conceptualization of communitas in light of the fieldwork findings derived from the encampment established at Istanbul’s Gezi Park in 2013.
Friedrich Nietzsche and Albert Schweitzer end up defending radically similar, yet critically opposed conclusions about the human animal and its place in nature, particularly with regard to the ethical awareness that does or does not follow from this situatedness. Arthur Schopenhauer’s notion of the will accounts for their similar foundational assumptions. But what accounts for the fact that their shared desire to affirm the will to life leads to fundamentally opposed ethical conclusions? What keeps Schweitzer’s ascetic ethic of reverence for life from evolving into Nietzsche’s anti-ascetic vision of a second innocence beyond good and evil? We argue that situating the notion of reverence for life within an environmental virtue ethics, as one environmental virtue among many, aiming at ecological conversion, better articulates and motivates the disposition demanded by the ethics of reverence for life.
The spatiotemporal evolution of ecological entropy (EE) reflects the differences and correlations among the different elements (roads, rivers, land, etc.) and regions in an ecosystem. In this study, an index system for evaluating the EE in an ecologically vulnerable area in China from 2005 to 2020 is constructed according to the pressure–state–response model. Models of the EE and its gradient are constructed, and they are evaluated using GIS and remote sensing. The results show that except for the utilization rate of solid waste, the index values of EE have increased dramatically in the past 16 years. Investment in waste pollution control, GDP per capita, vegetation index in July, and utilization rate of solid waste make large contributions to the EE. The EEs on the edge of the ecologically vulnerable area increased from 2005 to 2020, indicating that the ecological environment in these areas has deteriorated year by year. The regions with the largest outflow of EE indicate that the EEs of these regions had a large impact on those of their surrounding regions. The regions with the largest inflow of EE indicate that the ecological security of these regions is relatively stable to the surrounding regions. Large EE gradients existed between adjacent regions show large rate of change and inflow and outflow of EE. The results contribute to alleviating the high entropy, reversing the ecological imbalance, enhancing the ecological benefits, and improving the environmental quality in an ecological entropy system. The present results offer decision support for ecological evaluation, protection, restoration, compensation, and security.
Despite numerous domestic legislations, international treaties, agreements, conventions, and protocols to curb wildlife crimes, Bangladesh’s illegal wildlife trade (IWT) crime rate has increased significantly in recent years. The provision of the Wildlife (Conservation and Security) Act 2012 sets the highest seven and lowest two years punishment for killing tigers and elephants, a maximum of two years, and a minimum of six months imprisonment for killing birds. Nevertheless, the country has only 17% forest land; in this small area, wildlife crime increased 28 times in 2020, and nearly 4,000 live wild animals have been rescued, while more than 300 cases have been registered in the last ten years. We suggest that ineffective legal enforcement is the main reason for the illegal transaction of wild species through insecure border areas. Hence, successfully controlling the IWT problem in Bangladesh requires reducing the demand for wild animals, stopping the route of supplies, and combating global transnational wildlife crime.
As the community of life on this planet experiences the anthropogenic climate crisis, what tools from faith traditions can help us meet the coming challenges? By expanding the metaphor of light within the Christian and Quaker traditions to include light’s role in ecosystems, this project develops an ecotheology of light that aims to answer this question. The authors draw on their contexts in the Religious Society of Friends, placing the Quaker Inward Light in dialogue with the Bible, and light in Eastern Orthodox, ecological, and interdependence theologies. The Quaker ecotheology of light developed argues Light is a vitally important and mutually translatable metaphor providing a common language that can aid humanity, reinterpreting traditions to meet this moment with spiritual grounding to transition to a just and sustainable future for the Earth, our common home. This ecotheology of light is connected with implications for Friends testimonies.