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Over the years, translation has increasingly become a necessary tool to function in contemporary society. Based on years of research and teaching activity within the field, this book offers a useful and effective paradigm for the translation of different types of texts, guiding readers towards the realisation of effective translation projects. The several contrastive analyses presented and the suggestions offered throughout will help readers appreciate the implications and consequences of every translation choice, encouraging them to develop reading and translating skills applicable to the variety of texts they face in everyday life, from novels to comic books, films, and television series.
Cross-National Perspectives on the Challenges and Management of Higher Education in Crisis Times
COVID-19 caused massive disruptions in the higher education sector across the world. The transition to online learning exposed the deep-rooted inequalities between countries, systems, institutions, and student groups in terms of the availability of information technology infrastructure, internet access and digital literacy, as well as prior training and experiences of faculty in online education. This volume explores various aspects of the impact of the pandemic on higher education management including how university administration responded to the crisis, and the role of local and national government agencies in academic support and higher education delivery. The key findings highlight the importance of better organisation and preparedness of higher education systems for future crises, and the need for a better dialogue between governments, higher education institutions and other stakeholders. The book calls for a collective response to address the digital divide among various groups and financial inequalities within and between the private and public universities, and to plan for the serious challenges that international students face during crisis situations.
Author: Pratik Chougule
The drive to promote American-style higher education is among the most longstanding and enduring features of U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East. Since its earliest engagements in the region, the U.S. government has looked to American universities to promote Washington’s interests and values. This book analyzes how American universities in the Middle East relate to U.S. foreign policy and how this relationship has evolved amid shifting U.S. priorities through two world wars, the Cold War, and the War on Terrorism. American Universities in the Middle East and U.S. Foreign Policy focuses on four sets of case studies: (1) The American University of Beirut; (2) The American University in Cairo; (3) American universities in Afghanistan and Iraq; and (4) Education City in Qatar.

At a time when policymakers are litigating core tenets of U.S. Middle East policy and new actors are entering the region’s higher education space, this book provides a resource to understand the geopolitical role of American universities in the Middle East.
Digitalisation, Quality and Trust in Higher Education
The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated change in the higher education sector across the globe and has required huge efforts and commitments on the political, institutional and individual level. During this period higher education was considered, maybe more than ever, as an essential sector. Providing critical information and, contributing to the delivery of scientifically based solutions to help societies overcome this global crisis, universities also simultaneously maintained core educational activities to secure the academic future of the next student generation. This required a high level of innovation, adaptivity and creativity. The book is centred on three main themes linked to transformation and change in higher education: digitalisation, quality and trust. The transformative power of the pandemic has raised concerns and questions of each of them.

Contributors are: Stephanie Albrecht, Tony Armstrong, Victoria Birmingham, Victor Borden, Bruno Broucker, Uwe Cantner, Helge Dauchert, Harry de Boer, Caterina Fox, Amanda French, Katharina Hölzle, Gunnar Grepperud, Seonmi Jin, Ben Jongbloed, Alex Kendall, Cindy Konen, René Krempkow, Anne-Kristin Langner, Theodor Leiber, Oddlaug Marie Lindgaard, Silke Masson, Clare Milsom, Jessica Nooij, Mark O’Hara, Matt O’Leary, Pascale Stephanie Petri, Rosalind Pritchard, Christopher Stolz, Elisabeth Suzen, Sara-I. Täger, Daniel Thiemann, Lieke van Berlo, Lotte J. van Dijk, Katy Vigurs, Tilo Wendler, and Tamara Zajontz.

Abstract

When the COVID pandemic struck Colombia, the first academic semester of 2020 was already underway. Neither the government nor higher education institutions (HEI s) were prepared, but they adapted to the new reality. Adaptation, collaboration, and contention marked Colombian higher education’s response to the pandemic. The Colombian government, HEI s, faculty members, staff, and students adapted to the crisis in the best possible manner. The government issued regulations, revisited policies and procedures and provided financial resources within its capacities. HEI s offered to the government and society their support in efforts to mitigate the impact of the pandemic and swiftly adjusted their schedules and methodologies to a remote teaching mode. However, the crisis highlighted the country’s weaknesses in higher education financing, and a contention dynamic between mostly students and the government, which predated the pandemic and gained relevance when the needs of students and HEI s became more pressing. This chapter explores the impact of COVID in the Colombian higher education system during 2020 and 2021 and focuses on the financial challenges of the system. The first part highlights the prompt but uncoordinated and insufficient collaboration of different stakeholders. The second part addresses the major financial challenges from the perspectives of institutions and the students and provides examples of what HEI s and the government were able to provide in response to the crisis. Finally, in the third part, we analyse the country’s response to the pandemic and its challenges in higher education financing in the next few years.

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In: Higher Education and the COVID-19 Pandemic

Abstract

Before the pandemic, the governance of international higher education in Argentina was complex but not perceived as an issue that needed urgent attention. COVID-19 re-kindled not only the field’s academic debates but also the need for strategies and proactive policy-making from the State. This chapter argues that the management of the pandemic activated three dimensions of the issue: first, a claim or appeal to the national state for the administration or management of the emergency and risk situation; secondly, a resurface of previous debates on the need for regulation of the transnational sector and finally, the necessary reactivation of regional arenas to promote cooperation or integration activities). This work focuses on the two critical issues for governance in international higher education: distance education and international scientific collaborations and present a comprehensive socio-historical background of each issue in Argentina to situate the state of the discussion and provides some key points (capabilities and challenges) for future policies on the issue. Finally, the chapter shows that the current situation demands an in-depth dialogue on persistent inequalities and internal asymmetries in the higher education sector and the need to redirect these debates as well as the centrality of the State as a key-player, while respecting the autonomy of institutions.

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In: Higher Education and the COVID-19 Pandemic
Authors: Ran Wei and Victor Gekara

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic has had devastating consequences for societies and economies around the world, with the potential long-drawn-out social, economic impacts into the future. In most countries where Higher Education is a major export sector, the locking down of international movement over the past two years presents significant challenges. How these economies responded and continue to respond to the situation will determine the speed and effectiveness of recovery. This chapter considers Australia’s policy responses and draws inferences regarding recovery and return to normalcy in the immediate post-COVID space.

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In: Higher Education and the COVID-19 Pandemic

Abstract

As a matter of public interest, the COVID-19 pandemic has not only affected different types of institutions but has also dictated that such institutions worldwide take actions to mitigate its impact. This chapter describes the idea of university extension (outreach) as a fundamental mission for Brazilian public Higher Education Institutions (HEI s) to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic and other relevant social issues. First, the chapter contextualises Brazilian higher education. Second, it presents the idea of extension conceived by the Córdoba Student Movement of 1918, a perspective for the contextualisation of teaching and research, aiming at a close relationship between the university and society. Third, it highlights the relevance of extension in the current context by illustrating some initiatives taken by federal HEI s in Southern Brazil when COVID-19 struck. These experiences suggest that projects related to devising solutions to real-life problems might contribute to pedagogical innovation. Nevertheless, this requires institutional arrangements to support processes that exceed traditional academic boundaries

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In: Higher Education and the COVID-19 Pandemic

Abstract

The chapter describes how the COVID-19 pandemic influenced the financing and governance of Finnish universities over the period of March to December 2020. The emphasis is given to system-level policy responses to the crisis through regulation and financing, institutional-level crisis management initiatives, and a range of special project interventions intended to tackle the challenges stemming from the pandemic situation. Finnish universities have responded to the COVID-19 crisis systematically and efficiently on an individual basis and with mutually coordinated activities. Efficient crisis management, preparedness for crisis management, cooperation between universities, and cooperation between universities and public authorities in Finland was shown to be crucial to continue university operations during the COVID-19 crisis. However, long term implications of COVID-19 crisis to university funding levels remains to be seen. Due to the high level of dependency on public funds, Finnish universities may face financial challenges unless they are able to diversify their funding base.

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In: Higher Education and the COVID-19 Pandemic

Abstract

As higher education has to reposition itself with changing landscape due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the established mode of functioning has come under the scanner. The COVID-19 pandemic has brought a paradigm shift in history, affecting nearly every aspect of the education system. The pandemic has provided both challenge and opportunity to redefine, reform an enhance the effectiveness of higher education institutions. But this shift can only be undertaken by institutional capability and respected higher education institutions’ autonomy. Understanding how COVID-19 has changed the way of governance, pedagogy, and future of higher education in India, is the main objective of this study. The opportunities that the changes have brought to us and the challenges put forward by the paradigm shift in higher education remain centered in this analysis. Both primary and secondary sources have been utilized to conclude. This chapter first contextualizes higher education in the COVID-19 situation and then discusses major paradigm shifts in the Indian higher education sector. It systematically evaluates the consequences that arose from those shifting paradigms during the pandemic. The chapter, by examining responses of the government and educational institutions to the COVID-19 pandemic concludes with forecasting future resilience towards ‘New Normal’.

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In: Higher Education and the COVID-19 Pandemic