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Abstract

This article investigates researchers’ methodological preconceptions when aiming at insight by involving visual methods in focus group interviews. The authors examine the photos used in photo-elicited focus group interviews in a project investigating Chinese and Norwegian early childhood education master students and teacher educators’ values and beliefs about proper artifacts for local and national belonging. They aim to adopt a “defamiliarizing mode” for their interpretations while emphasizing conflicting perspectives among the interviewees using provocative photos to prompt the discussion. To critically investigate the photos and problematize the authors’ choices of photos that reflect their preconceptions, this article is structured around the research question: how can photo-elicited interviews (pei) provoke researchers’ methodological preconceptions? The conflicting perspectives were analyzed building on Bakhtin’s concepts on outsideness, chronotope and polyphony. The authors’ analysis surfaces new insight into the limitations and strengths of photo-elicited focus group interviews contextualized in educational research.

Open Access
In: Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy
Author: Natalie LeBlanc

Abstract

This article explores a series of non-linear films produced in an undergraduate digital arts course. Drawing on concept of the time-image, the researcher theorizes how filmmaking produces events of duration () for which bodies, living and nonliving, are actively engaged in processes of becoming. She makes connections with what Deborah Bird calls shimmer with practices of immediation () a brilliance that brings us into “the experience of being part of a vibrant and vibrating world” (, p. 53). The researcher argues that filmmaking is a shimmering practice in a kaleidoscope world – capable of generating affective, embodied, and sensorial events – practices-in-the-making. Thus the article aligns with the goal of this special topic: to analyze affective and somatic modes of filmmaking and their potential to create virtual openings in the ubiquitous quality of sensation in the city ().

Open Access
In: Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy

Abstract

Since their inception, Game Studies and its sub-discipline Historical Game Studies have stressed the pedagogical potential of (historical) games for learning. Today, popular off-the-shelf historical digital games such as Assassin’s Creed: Origins (2017), Total War: Three Kingdoms (2019), and Red Dead Redemption (2010) have achieved period-faithful and authentic interactive representations of elements of history that possess pedagogical value distinct from written accounts. To substantiate this claim, the authors forward a multimodal account of the varied ways in which historical knowledge is present in both game design and the gameplay experience. Their approach is illustrated with an under-investigated (yet valuable) mode of historical exploration – ‘Imaginative History.’ Using video and/or screen captures from several sequences of recorded game footage taken from A Plague Tale: Innocence, the authors present a case example from the game’s fantastical portrayal of the Black Death plague. The game’s value for teaching and learning is examined in relation to its re-mediation and subversion of past pre-modern folklore imaginations and beliefs concerning the Black Death. The authors also account for the relevance of the way games achieve a specific mode of engagement that is experientially based and structured within gameplay.

Open Access
In: Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy
Series Editor: Michael A. Peters
Contexts of Education is a new series of handbooks that embraces both a creative approach to educational issues focused on context and a new publishing credo.
All educational concepts and issues have a home and belong to a context. This is the starting premise for this new series. One of the big intellectual breakthroughs of post-war science and philosophy was to emphasise the theory-ladenness of observations and facts—facts and observations cannot be established independent of a theoretical context. In other words, facts and observations are radically context-dependent. We cannot just see what we like or choose to see. In the same way, scholars are argue that concepts and constructs also are relative to a context, whether this be a theory, schema, framework, perspective or network of beliefs. Background knowledge always intrudes; it is there, difficult to articulate, tacit and operates to shape and help form our perceptions. This is the central driving insight of a generation of thinkers from Ludwig Wittgenstein and Karl Popper to Thomas Kuhn and Jürgen Habermas. Increasingly, in social philosophy, hermeneutics, and literary criticism textualism has given way to contextualism, paving the way for the introduction of the notions of ‘frameworks’, ‘paradigms’ and ‘networks’—concepts that emphasize a new ecology of thought.
This new series is predicated upon this insight and movement. It emphasises the importance of context in the establishment of educational facts and observations and the framing of educational hypotheses and theories. It also emphasises the relation between text and context, the discursive and the institution, the local and the global. Accordingly, it emphasizes the significance of contexts at all levels of inquiry: scientific contexts; theoretical contexts; political, social and economic contexts; local and global contexts; contexts for learning and teaching; and, cultural and interdisciplinary contexts.
Contexts of Education, as handbooks, are conceived as reference texts that also can serve as texts.
This book series aims at providing readers with a set of monographs dealing with current educational issues from a research and theoretical perspective. In dealing with the many problems besetting our increasingly globalised world, education remains one of the most critical professions, with educational research and theorising being one of the most potent vehicles for comprehending and informing future policies and practices. Thus Critical Essays across Education intends to provide academics, policy-makers, research students and concerned general readers, with critical reflections on up-to-date ideas from the international research field of education. In particular this series will reflect the growing trend for borderland crossings in education, whereby cross-discipline research is creating new and important theoretical pathways.
Much theoretical and research-based writing in educational texts tends towards the inaccessible end of the readability dimension. So the brief for intending authors in this series will be to reflect on their research, and those of others, in such a way as to help educate the generalist, as well as the specialist.
Series Editor: Leonard J. Waks
The aim of the Leaders in Educational Studies series is to document the rise of scholarship and university teaching in educational studies in the years after 1960. This half-century has been a period of astonishing growth and accomplishment. The volumes in the series document this development of educational studies as seen through the eyes of its leading practitioners.
A few words about the build up to this period are in order. Before the mid-twentieth century school teaching, especially at the primary level, was as much a trade as a profession. School teachers were trained primarily in normal schools or teachers colleges, only rarely in universities. But in the 1940s American normal schools were converted into teachers colleges, and in the 1960s these were converted into state universities. At the same time school teaching was being transformed into an all-graduate profession in both the United Kingdom and Canada. For the first time, school teachers required a proper university education.
Something had to be done, then, about what was widely regarded as the deplorable state of educational scholarship. James Conant, in his final years as president at Harvard in the early 1950s, envisioned a new kind of university-based school of education, drawing scholars from mainstream academic disciplines such as history, sociology psychology and philosophy, to teach prospective teachers, conduct educational research, and train future educational scholars. One of the first two professors hired to fulfil this vision was Israel Scheffler, a young philosopher of science and language who had earned a Ph.D. in philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania. Scheffler joined Harvard’s education faculty in 1952. The other was Bernard Bailyn, who joined the Harvard faculty in 1953 after earning his Ph.D. there, and who re-energized the study of American educational history with the publication of Education in the Forming of American Society: Needs and Opportunities for Study (University of North Carolina Press, 1960). The series has been exceptionally fortunate that Scheffler provided a foreword to the volume on philosophy of education, and that Bernard Bailyn provided a foreword for the volume on the history of American education. It is equally fortunate that subsequent volumes have also contained forewords by similarly eminent scholars, including James Banks of the University of Washington, who has been a creative force in social education for decades and the prime mover in the field of multi-cultural education.
The Leaders in Educational Studies series continues to document the growing and changing literature in educational studies. Studies conducted within the established academic disciplines of history, philosophy, and sociology comprised the dominant trend throughout the 1960s and 1970s. By the 1980s educational studies diversified considerably, in terms of both new sub-disciplines within these established disciplines and new interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary fields.
Curriculum studies, both in general and in the particular school subject matter fields, drew extensively from work in philosophy, history and sociology of education. Work in these disciplines, and also in anthropology and cultural studies among others, also stimulated new perspectives on race, class and gender.
This volume, like previous volumes in the series, brings together personal essays by established leaders in a major field of educational studies. Subsequent volumes in the series will continue to document other established and emerging disciplines, sub-disciplines and inter-disciplines in educational scholarship.
Series Editor: Michael A. Peters
“Open education involves a commitment to openness and is therefore inevitably a political and social project. The concept of openness in regard to education pre-dates the openness movement that begins with free software and open source in the mid-1980s with roots going back to the Enlightenment that are bound up with the philosophical foundations of modern education with its commitments to freedom, citizenship, knowledge for all, social progress and individual transformation. Yet in another way political, social and technological developments have taken place in parallel alongside the history of the movement of open education that have heightened certain political and epistemological features and technological enabled others that emphasize questions of access to knowledge, the co-production and co-design of educational programs and of knowledge, the sharing, use, reuse and modification of resources while enhancing the ethics of participation and collaboration. Open education as a movement sits within the broader framework of the history of openness that brings together a number of disciplines and fields to impact directly upon the value of knowledge and learning, their geographic distribution and ownership, and their organization.”
[http://www.ffst.hr/ENCYCLOPAEDIA/]
This new series is devoted to the general theory and practice of open education in all its forms.
Author: Rene Novak

Abstract

This video article series investigates the emergence of a ‘digital haven’, that hosts a new type of society. These people are converging in digitally constructed realities for multiple reasons: some seek refuge from the harsh realities of the contemporary social order, others investigate new ways to socialise, or seek somewhere where the limitations of the real world don’t apply. Both science-fiction media and academics predicted that once virtual reality technologies (vr) reach the general consumer, society would change (; ; ; ). In recent years the number of households with vr devices has increased (; ). This article suggests that vr technology has given birth to an ‘Immersive Virtual Online Avatar Society’. This society harbours many occasional visitors, but also some permanent virtual residents. Important questions arise; starting with: “Does an online community established in the virtual space constitute a ‘real’ society?” This will be investigated with sources from virtual worlds developed with the social multi-user vr software VRChat, drawn from academic research, from video recordings of interactions in VRChat and from philosophical inquiry into the author’s personal experiences and the experiences of other users.

Open Access
In: Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy

Abstract

The authors explore how multiple viewpoints can challenge our habitualised way of viewing and expand the area of thinking about children’s outdoor learning. They draw on micro-fieldwork in a Sámi kindergarten in Arctic Norway. There, learning through participation and practical experiences is a traditional strategy in child rearing. This method of learning is currently being transformed in Sámi kindergartens, wherein the goal is to strengthen the Sámi language, identity and culture. The authors’ aim is to explore how learning through participation in pedagogical practices could be made visible by employing different viewpoints. They used GoPro® cameras worn on children’s bodies, combined with their own gaze, as well as a handheld video camera used by one of the authors. Such a combination of viewpoints allowed gaining an insight into the complex outdoor kindergarten practices. Drawing on Jayne White’s polyphonic dialogical approach to video, the authors placed these diverse viewpoints in a dialogue during the process of analysis. These dialogues revealed our pre-defined human-centric view and effected a change in our theoretical approach, from socio-cultural learning theories to new materialist theories, to include the premise that children learn in all interactions and entanglements that they are part of in a socio-material world.

Open Access
In: Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy
In this book, Judith Norris presents a theoretical model that demonstrates a new approach to understanding how school leaders respond to conflicting expectations and demands. The idea of sensemaking and sensegiving is theoretically interesting and allows the reader to focus on how school leaders make sense, but also how they give sense to others in the complex conditions that educators now must negotiate. Like the Eucalyptus tree, educational leaders must adapt to their contradictory environments.

Written in the most accessible way, the theory and its application will likely appeal not only to researchers, but also to teachers and school administrators. Norris has created a real applicability to school leadership in various international contexts.