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Sean Durbin

In Righteous Gentiles: Religion, Identity, and Myth in John Hagee’s Christians United for Israel, Sean Durbin offers a critical analysis of America’s largest Pro-Israel organization, Christians United for Israel, along with its critics and collaborators. Although many observers focus Christian Zionism’s influence on American foreign policy, or whether or not Christian Zionism is ‘truly’ religious, Righteous Gentiles takes a different approach.

Through his creative and critical analysis of Christian Zionists’ rhetoric and mythmaking strategies, Durbin demonstrates how they represent their identities and political activities as authentically religious. At the same time, Durbin examines the role that Jews and the state of Israel have as vehicles or empty signifiers through which Christian Zionist truth claims are represented as manifestly real.

U.S. Trotskyism 1928-1965. Part II: Endurance

The Coming American Revolution. Dissident Marxism in the United States: Volume 3

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Edited by Paul Le Blanc, Thomas Bias and Bryan D. Palmer

U.S. Trotskyism 1928-1965. Part II: Endurance: The Coming American Revolution is the second of a documentary trilogy on a revolutionary socialist split-off from the U.S. Communist Party, reflecting Leon Trotsky’s confrontation with Stalinism in the global Communist movement. Spanning 1941 to 1956, this volume surveys the Second World War (internationally and on the 'homefront'), the momentous post-war strike wave, ongoing efforts to comprehend and struggle against racism, as well as the early years of the Cold War and anti-Communist repression in the United States. Also covered are internal debates and splits among Trotskyists themselves, including a far-reaching split in the international Trotskyist movement (the Fourth International) in the face of a persistent and expanding Stalinism. Scholars and activists will find much of interest in these primary sources.

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Edited by Paul L. Gareau, Spencer Culham Bullivant and Peter Beyer

Youth, Religion, and Identity in a Globalizing Context: International Perspectives investigates the ways that young people navigate the intersections of religion and identity. As part of the Youth in a Globalizing World series, this book provides a broad discussion on the various social, cultural, and political forces affecting youth and their identities from an international comparative perspective. Contributors to this volume situate the experiences of young people in Canada, the United States, Germany, and Australia within a globalized context. This volume explores the different experiences of youth, the impact of community and processes of recognition, and the reality of ambivalence as agency.

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Heather Shipley

Religion, religiosity and religious identity are frequently debated and oft referenced foci of much media and public discourse in Canada, with increasing intensity in the face of controversies regarding religious education and religious practice in public. Although controversies reference youth’s vulnerability and the impact of religion in public on youth (in schools or youth clubs for example) rarely do the debates include the voices of youth themselves. This paper will integrate youths’ own reflections on religion and religiosity in a so-called secular society, asking whether it is apathy or misunderstanding that best represents the religious identity of youth in Canada. Data will be presented from the Religion, Gender and Sexuality among Youth survey in Canada to evaluate youth negotiations of their religious identity.

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Marie-Paule Martel-Reny

This chapter presents selected results of a qualitative research study on Quebec adolescents and their relation to religion and spirituality. Through individual, semi-directed interviews, 17 Montreal adolescents (nine girls and eight boys) between the ages of 14 and 19 (m = 16.05) were asked about their views on religion, spirituality, beliefs, religious diversity, and their appreciation of the province of Quebec’s (Canada) newly implemented Ethics and Religious Culture (erc) Program. Given Quebec’s unique religious and linguistic position in North America, the main historical and socioal elements that led to the development of the erc program are also discussed in order to contextualize the data.

The results show that the participants had a secular and even anti-clerical worldview, evidenced by a distrust of religious institutions and an absence of religious beliefs and practices. However, they were open to the concept of spirituality, which they saw as different from religion: they described the former as fluid, authentic, and based on individual choices, and the latter as rigid and dogmatic or a form of social control. The majority of participants also displayed an interest for learning about religious culture and ethical questions, evidenced by a generally positive evaluation of the Ethics and Religious Culture Program, which was mediated by the interest and preparation of the teachers in charge of this subject.

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Peter Beyer, Scott Craig and Alyshea Cummins

Basing itself on about 800 responses to a 2014–2016 survey and about 100 interviews with a broad section of young adults in Canada, the chapter examines how 18–30 year-olds in this country are constructing both their religious or non-religious identities in global context. Results support the conclusions of other research, namely that there is a great variation in the construction of such identities. Three categories of identity construction dominate. A large group does not have a religious identity (the non-religious/non-spiritual) at all. These are often express atheists, but need not be. They engage in no religious or spiritual practice and subscribe to very few common religious beliefs. An equally sizeable group exhibits standard religious identities lived and performed according to the orthodox/orthoprax criteria of the usually recognized global religions. These almost always belong to only one such religion. A third group, much more diverse, reveals a variety of eclectic, marginal, and spiritual-but-not-religious identities in between the first two. In this group one finds the highest proportion of people who profess to belong to more than one religion, who practice their religion(s) à la carte, or in the form a bricolage of items drawn from a variety of sources and traditions. This group also generally engages in relatively few religious or spiritual practices of any kind. The vast majority of all the young people have still experienced some degree of socialization into religion, even though many no longer belong or identify.

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Reginald Bibby

The significant post-1960s growth in the proportion of Canadians young and old who indicate that they have “no religion” has underlined the increasing dichotomy between those who value religion and those who do not. This conscious polarization has been accompanied by the emergence of individuals who place importance on spirituality but not religion (sbnr). There is value in cataloguing the population according to such inclinations. However, in addition, it is important to explore some of the possible correlates of these identity inclinations – including values and behaviour – in order to understand some of the possible implications of religious and no religion choices for personal and collective life. In this paper, the author draws on Canadian census, gss, and recent survey data to identify prevalent religious and spiritual inclinations, and explore some individual and social correlates.

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Paul L. Gareau

Since the 1960s, Catholicism in Canada has sought to adjust to shifting socio-political realities. This has given rise to different movements and approaches in the Church intended to stifle the loss of its members and reassert its prominence in the socio-political landscape. One such movement is a weekend conference called Journey to the Father where 500 Catholic youth congregate in rural Ontario to discuss, experience, and (re)discover their faith. Journey is designed to allow for an e motional religious experience in the hopes of converting “cultural” Catholics into socio-religiously active Catholic neophytes. This presentation underscores how Journey acts as an “alternative” public site for the inculcation of an evangelical Catholic identity in Canadian youth in order to challenge the liberal values of a modern and diverse Canadian society. This chapter emphasizes how the young Catholics who attended Journey to the Father negotiate (i.e., appropriate or negate) evangelical Catholic values and experiences when forming their social, political, and religious identities in order to understand their socio-political position in a diverse Canadian society. This presentation also seeks to understand how youth actively negotiate the convergence of evangelical worldview with their engagement in a pluralistic social landscape. It seeks to see how young people are striking their own path through this discursive wilderness of religious identity.