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Abstract

Methodological choices in animal experimentation are influenced by a variety of factors. The analysis of the relative weight of such factors on the practice of animal experimentation can offer a better idea of the influences characterizing the work of researchers today. To this aim, we conducted structured interviews and sent out questionnaires to researchers using animal models. The results showed that the main factor influencing the researchers’ work with animals was the appropriateness of the chosen animal model to respond to the question addressed. Ethical issues came as the next important factor, mostly based on considerations regarding animal suffering. The general public opinion appeared to be of little significance, indicating that a gap still exists between animal researchers and society. This paper shows animal experimentation is influenced by both external (e.g., adherence to scientific objectivity) and internal factors (e.g., ethical concerns), providing a varied profile of the contemporary animal researcher.

In: Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research
Author: Leonor Galhardo

Abstract

‘My fish and I’ is an account of the diversity of human-fish interactions. This includes their benefits, detriments/harms as well as their moral and animal welfare. Fish are not easily perceived as individual animals having mental states, interests, needs and a degree of individuality. Additionally, fish have been handled as a simple resource in innumerable human interactions. Important ethical approaches address animal-human interactions based upon the individual’s cognitive ability and capacity to feel pleasure and pain. Given the ample evidence that fish have neuroanatomical structures that support the capacity to feel (sentience) and have complex behavioural and cognitive abilities, a moral duty is imposed upon us. Some human-centered and eco-centered moral views complement different perceptions of the nature of our relationship with fish. This occurs both at the individual level and as species or populations face a serious need for conservation. The concepts and assessments in the developments of animal welfare science provide ample basis for an evolution in the quality of human-fish interactions. However, many stakeholders must take part in this evolution. This is especially true as it concerns those areas of activity involving many individual fish and higher levels of suffering. Examples of these are aquaculture and commercial fisheries where there is much more at stake. Consumers will have the last word in this role, namely by reducing fish consumption.

In: Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research

Abstract

In order to continue its business sustainably, any industry that uses animals must largely align their ethical position with that of the general public: ‘the mainstream social ethic’. Although zoos are transitioning from entertainment venues to conservation actors, many cetacean (whale and dolphin) facilities present the animals in unnatural-looking enclosures and entertainment-driven contexts. But what is the ‘mainstream social ethic’ regarding cetacean facilities, and what might it mean for the industry’s future? The evidence is first reviewed on cetacean welfare and the purported purposes for displaying cetaceans in the past and present. The mainstream social ethic is then defined, suggesting we may be at a crossroads for this industry. Welfare has improved in the last decades but could be further enhanced through providing more choice and control in cetaceans’ environments, particularly in enrichment, training and social groupings. Sanctuary settings provide a potential environment with more choice and control, but are still in the very initial stages of development. Fundamental, structural changes to the mission, presentation of the cetaceans and business model seem to be needed to realign the public display of cetaceans with the mainstream social ethic of the times.

In: Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research
Authors: Max Janse and Nienke Klerks

Abstract

As ocean’s apex predators, elasmobranchs are a very popular group in zoos and public aquariums. Since 30% of these species are threatened, there is a need within the zoo and public aquarium community to create a Regional Collection Plan (RCP) to coordinate the elasmobranch populations under human care. In 2011, Royal Burgers’ Zoo decided to change the Institutional Collection Plan (ICP) and stopped getting any sharks or rays directly from the wild. This study presents the potential and challenges of this approach. Although this study shows it to be a feasible approach for one public aquarium, implementing this ICP criterion in multiple public aquariums will require an increase in breeding efforts. There may also remain a need to collect animals from the wild as part of a conservation programme on threatened species or to increase the number of founders in a breeding programme.

In: Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research

Abstract

The distribution and species/lineage diversity of freshwater invertebrate zooplankton is understudied in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the present study, we explored the lineage diversity and regional distribution of Moinidae (Crustacea: Cladocera) species in Southeast Nigeria. Three species of Moinidae were identified, based on morphology, in 11 of 32 Nigerian lakes examined. Their phylogenetic relationships were investigated based on mitochondrial dna sequences (cytochrome oxidase c subunit I gene; coi) and two nuclear internal transcribed spacer regions (its-1 and its-2). Three coi lineages were detected, corresponding to the morphological species. Two of the coi lineages are newly reported, but one coi lineage (and the haplotype found) is globally distributed, suggesting an ability of moinids to disperse over long distances. Interestingly, two individuals that were morphologically M. cf. macrocopa and had its alleles typical of that species had mtDNA sequences typical of M. cf. micrura. Additionally, one individual that corresponded morphologically to M. cf. macrocopa (and also had a mitochondrial sequence typical of M. cf. micrura) had one its-2 allele typical of that species and one typical of M. cf. micrura. This discordance between mtDNA and nuclear phylogenies suggests gene introgression and/or hybridization between different species within the genus. Our data shows the lineage distribution/diversity and the presence of gene introgression/interspecific hybridization among moinid species from a tropical region.

Open Access
In: Contributions to Zoology
Volume Editors: Xinzheng Li, Wenliang Liu, and Wei Jiang
This volume is devoted to the memory of the eminent carcinologist Professor Ruiyu Liu (1922-2012) of the Institute of Oceanology of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China. Since 1949, Professor Liu had devoted his life to studying taxonomy, systematics, ecology, zoogeography and aquaculture and published a total of more than 210 papers and monographs. He described two new genera, fifty-two new species and one new subspecies, including not only crustaceans but also cnidarians, polychaetes and molluscs. In this volume forty of his friends and colleagues put together sixteen papers to honour Professor Liu, and named after him three new genera and eleven new species.
First published as a Special Issue of Crustaceana 93(11-12): 1233-1546.
Publication of these volumes has been supported by a grant from Uitvoeringsorganisatie Twinningfaciliteit Suriname Nederland (UTSN), and initiative of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands to stimulate economic and cultural collaboration between Suriname and the Netherlands.

The UTSN grant was awarded to the Dutch natural history museum NCB Naturalis and the National Zoological Collection of Suriname to digitalize the Suriname collection at Naturalis and produce books to raise awareness of the diverse fauna of Suriname and stimulate eco-tourism to the country.
Root-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne represent one of the most damaging and agricultural important group of plant-parasitic nematodes. These nematodes are obligate sedentary endoparasites infecting most species of higher plants and have a cosmopolitan distribution. Annual worldwide economic losses due to nematode infection of crops have been estimated at several hundred billion US dollars. This book is the first complete illustrated compendium of root-knot nematode species and contains 98 species descriptions with comprehensive diagnoses, information on biology, plant-hosts, pathogenicity, symptoms, distribution and biochemical and molecular diagnostics. It also includes introductions into morphology, biology, biogeography, genomics, phylogeny and host-parasite relationships of root-knot nematodes.
In: Systematics of Root-knot Nematodes (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae)
In: Systematics of Root-knot Nematodes (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae)