This study focuses on the Brazilian species of the genus Purenleon Stange (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae). A total of five species are herein reported to Brazil: Purenleon clavatus (Navás), Purenleon fernandezi Miller & Stange (first record for Brazil), Purenleon cautus (Walker) comb. n., and two new species: Purenleon limeirai sp. n. and Purenleon rafaeli sp. n. The taxonomical status of other two species was reevaluated: Formicaleo bipunctatus Navás was synonymized under P. cautus and Feinerus nebulosus Navás was revalidated and transferred to Purenleon. A key to the South American species of Purenleon is also presented.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution

Nine new species of the collembolan genus Salina MacGillivray from South America are described and illustrated. Two Neotropical species were recorded for the first time from Brazil: S. dedoris Mari-Mutt and S. tristani Denis. Salina was previously known to occur in three Brazilian states, and this is now updated to include 19 states with 12 recorded species. A new proposal of morphological character description and illustration, and an identification key for the celebensis group are provided. A hypothesis for the phylogenetic relationships among 34 species of Salina (about 50% of the 72 described species) allowed three main pursuits: (a) a reevaluation of Salina species groups; (b) the first explicit interpretation of how morphological characters of these springtails may have changed during the course of the diversification of the taxon; and (c) an evaluation of the historical biogeographic connections of Salina, with an emphasis on the celebensis group distribution to the New World.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution

The tribe Sisyphini sensu stricto Mulsant, 1842 comprises only three genera, the widespread Sisyphus Latreille, 1807 and Neosisyphus Müller, 1942, and the Mauritius endemic, Nesosisyphus Vinson, 1946. In southern Africa, Sisyphus and Neosisyphus are represented by five species groups in each genus. Together, they comprise a total of 33 valid species, of which six are new: Sisyphus auricomus sp. n; Sisyphus australis sp. n ; Sisyphus bicuariensis sp. n; Sisyphus inconspicuus sp. n; Sisyphus swazi sp. n; and Neosisyphus tembyi sp. n. A further Southern African species, Sisyphus crispatus Gory, 1833, is proposed as a nomen dubium. Sisyphus natalensis Balthasar, 1968 (syn. n), and Sisyphus bornemisszanus Endrödi, 1983 (pars) (syn. n) are made synonyms of Sisyphus sordidus Boheman, 1857. Lectotypes and paralectotypes are designated for Sisyphus costatus (Thunberg, 1818); Sisyphus seminulum Gerstaecker, 1871; Sisyphus nanniscus Péringuey, 1901; Sisyphus transvaalensis Péringuey 1901; Neosisyphus spinipes (Thunberg, 1818) and Neosisyphus barbarossa (Wiedemann, 1823). Diagnoses, photographs of habitus and male genitalia, lists of examined material and distribution maps are presented for all species. An identification key to the southern African sisyphine species is provided.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution

Mantellid frogs present an extensive adaptive radiation endemic to Madagascar and Comoros, being the subfamily Mantellinae the most morphologically and ecologically diverse. The Mantellinae present key innovative evolutionary traits linked to their unique reproductive behavior, including the presence of femoral glands and a derived vomeronasal organ. In addition, previous studies pointed to size differentiation in playing an important role in species’ dispersal capacities and shaping of their geographic ranges. Despite the high phenotypic variation observed in this clade, to date an exhaustive morphological analysis of their anatomy has still not been performed, much less in relation to internal structures. Here, we present a comprehensive skeletal description of a mantellid species, Blommersia transmarina, from the island of Mayotte in the Indian Ocean, which has potentially undergone a process of moderate gigantism compared to other Blommersia species. We describe its intraspecific skeletal variation utilizing non-destructive volume renderings from μCT-scans, and characterize the presence of sexual dimorphism and size covariation in skeletal structures. Notably, we found numerous signs of hyperossification, a novel structure for mantellids: the clavicular process, and the presence of several appendicular sesamoids. Our findings suggest that skeletal phenotypic variation in this genus may be linked to biomechanical function for reproduction and locomotion.

In: Contributions to Zoology

The connectivity of groundwater aquifers is lower compared to surface waters. Consequently, groundwater species are expected to have smaller distributional ranges than their surface relatives. Molecular taxonomy, however, unveiled that many species comprise complexes of morphologically cryptic species, with geographically restricted distributional ranges in subterranean as well as in surface waters. Hence, the range sizes of surface and groundwater species might be more similar in size than hitherto thought. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the range size of surface amphipods of the genus Gammarus and subterranean amphipods of the genus Niphargus in Iran. We re-analyzed the taxonomic structure of both genera using two unilocus species delimitation methods applied to a fragment of the COI mitochondrial marker, to identify molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs), and assessed the maximum linear extent (MLE) of the ranges of MOTUs from both genera. Genus Gammarus comprised 44–58 MOTUs while genus Niphargus comprised 20–22 MOTUs. The MLEs of the two genera were not significantly different, regardless the delimitation method applied. The results remained unchanged also after exclusion of single site MOTUs. We tentatively conclude that in this case there is no evidence to consider that groundwater species are geographically more restricted than surface species.

In: Contributions to Zoology

The putative monophyly and systematic position of Merodon nigritarsis group was assessed based on morphological and molecular data of the mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28S rRNA genes. The previously reported concept of the group has been redefined, and M. crassifemoris Paramonov, 1925 is now excluded. The related M. avidus group is redefined here, including the Merodon avidus complex and M. femoratus Sack, 1913. Species delimitation of morphologically defined species of M. nigritarsis group was well supported by COI gene analysis, with the exception of M. alagoezicus Paramonov, 1925 and M. lucasi Hurkmans, 1993. Descriptions are given for three new species of the M. nigritarsis species group: Merodon cohurnus Vujić, Likov et Radenković sp. n., Merodon longisetus Vujić, Radenković et Likov sp. n. and Merodon obstipus Vujić, Radenković et Likov sp. n., and one new species from the M. avidus group: Merodon rutitarsis Likov, Vujić et Radenković sp. n. A lectotype is designated for M. femoratus Sack, 1913, and two new synonymies of this species were proposed: M. biarcuatus Curran, 1939 and M. elegans Hurkmans, 1993. Here we review 18 species from the M. nigritarsis group and six species from the M. avidus group and provide morphological diagnoses of the species groups. Additionally, diagnosis of 12 branches (groups or individual taxa) of M. avidus-nigritarsis lineage, an illustrated diagnostic key for the males, and distribution map are provided for the new species.

In: Contributions to Zoology
Continuity and Innovation in a Key Technology
In The Merchant Ship in the British Atlantic, 1600—1800, Phillip Reid refutes the long-held assumption that merchant ship technology in the British Atlantic during the two centuries of its development was static for all intents and purposes, and that whatever incremental changes took place in it were inconsequential to the development of the British Empire and its offshoots.

Drawing on a unique combination of evidence from both traditional and unconventional sources, Phillip Reid shows how merchants, shipwrights, and mariners used both proven principles and adaptive innovations in hulls, rigs, and steering systems to manage high physical and financial risks.
The original Arabic text of Maimonides’ major medical work, Medical Aphorisms, was critically edited and translated into English by Gerrit Bos in the years 2004-2017, and published in earlier volumes of the book series The Medical Works of Moses Maimonides. The present work is a new critical edition of the medieval Hebrew translation by Nathan ha-Meʾati, who was active as a translator of scientific texts in Rome in the late thirteenth century, where his colleague Zeraḥyah Ḥen had completed a translation of the same Maimonidean text in 1277, only a few years earlier. Nathan aimed to provide the general reader with a translation that was easier to understand than Zeraḥyah's translation. The present critical edition of Nathan’s translation is primarily based on MS Paris, BN, héb. 1174, and not on MS Paris, BN, héb. 1173, used by Suessmann Muntner for his edition in 1959, as this copy suffers from many mistakes and corruptions.
The original Arabic text of Maimonides’ major medical work, Medical Aphorisms, was critically edited and translated into English by Gerrit Bos in the years 2004-2017, and published in earlier volumes of the book series The Medical Works of Moses Maimonides. The present work is the first critical edition of the medieval Hebrew translation by R. Zeraḥyah ben Isaac ben Sheʾaltiel Ḥen. Zeraḥyah, active as a translator in Rome from 1277 to 1291, was not only known for his translations of Maimonides’ medical works, but also for his translations of medical works by Galen and Ibn Sīnā, and for his philosophical works by Aristotle and Averroes. Zeraḥyah’s unique Hebrew translation adheres closely to Maimonides’ Arabic text and contains many Italian and Latin loanwords.
Paintings, Drawings and Prints up to the Nineteenth Century
This lavishly illustrated book provides an overview of all known Dutch and Flemish artists up to the nineteenth century, who painted or drew flower pieces, or else made prints of them. In cases where only a single example is known, or even if nothing of their work appears to have survived, it is included or mentioned in this book. This comprehensive approach differs, therefore, from mainstream art historical studies, which almost always deal primarily with famous artists and well-known works of art. The flower pieces in this book can be found in the care of museums, in the hands of art dealers and in the possession of private collectors. The aim is to show at least one image by as many artists as possible. Particularly noteworthy and useful are the many lists identifying the names of flowers, insects and other animals, which are provided for choice examples of flower pieces as case studies of work by particular artists. Other themes covered in this scholarly monograph include discussions on the earliest depictions of the flower still life, the distinctive characteristics behind the development of floral arrangements during different periods, including the variation of the flowers, the variety of techniques employed by artists, as well as an examination of the symbolism behind the numerous plant and animal species portrayed.

Composed in Dutch, the text was translated into English by Judith Deitch and edited by Philip Kelleway.