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This volume focuses on the different challenges of language policy in the Southern African Development Community (SADC). Each of the seventeen chapters follows the same structure, ensuring readability and accessibility, and describes the unique aspects of each country. The work as a whole reveals the complex and reciprocal relations between multiple indigenous African languages, Creole languages and former colonial languages and it constitutes an opportunity to notice recurring patterns as well as distinctive characteristics.
Therefore, everyone involved in language policy, education, economics and development, geography, development or area studies and African studies will benefit from such a holistic and innovative overview.
This book series covers the entire African continent on a national scale in order to provide a holistic overview of multilingualism and the language policies. Due to its country-by-country structure all African countries receive the same attention and space. For usability purposes, the countries are grouped in the different regional economic communities (RECs):
- Volume I: SADC
- Volume II: EAC & ECCAS
- Volume III: ECOWAS
- Volume IV: AMU & COMESA
These volumes of the series focus primarily on language-in-education policies (LiEP). The book series aims to describe and analyse the diverse challenges of LiEP for the entire African continent using a standard structure for each chapter to ensure readability. Book chapters will be mainly contributed by authors based in Africa.

Abstract

Today’s challenges such as automation, climate change, ageing populations, pandemics and deployment of artificial intelligence, have unpredictable and unintended consequences at both global and individual levels. Similarly, complex systems have become the norm rather than the exception. In this environment, “reactive” approaches to policy-making have increasingly proven ineffective. We need, therefore, to invest in anticipation policy for sustainable development. Formulating sustainable policies in developing states has been a challenge. This paper builds on Sociological Institutionalism in its attempt to discern the role of institutions in policy-making in Tanzania. The study used archival data from the Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, the Elderly and Children (MHCDGEC) with the National Health Policy of 2007 as the case study guided by Boomerang, Earthquake, Stalactite, and Tortoise (BEST) scheme for studying patterns of institutional change. The findings indicate that the policy-making process in Tanzania failed to domesticate some regional guidelines such as the African Agenda 2063, especially goal number three (3). However, pragmatically, the policy has registered stead increase in health facilities and improved services while politically the policy is viewed as a success as one of the pledges made in the ruling party’s manifesto that is being implemented in Tanzania. This paper concludes that Tanzania still embraces the pattern; and that it is the fidelity to the erstwhile policy-making style, which is centralized, hierarchical and managerial-a typical coercive isomorphism. Policy-making is still dominated by the central government while excluding other stakeholders such as communities. To improve policy-making in Tanzania, the paper recommends enhancement of the space for grassroots participation, domestication of regional and global policy agenda and imposition of a limitation upon the power of the elite.

In: The African Review

Abstract

In Tanzania Traditional Medicine (TM) provides primary health services to more than 60% of the population. Tanzania incorporated TM into the 1996 Health Policy and enacted the Traditional Medicine Act, 2002, to formalise TM practices. This article argues that the legal and policy frameworks guiding the provision of health services in the country undermine the practices of Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs) with respect to the provision of primary health services in the rural areas. This study was conducted in Bukoba District, Tanzania, to find out how TM coexisted with the biomedical system in the provision of health services. Data was collected by reviewing the National Health Policy and the Traditional Medicine Act, 2002, observing the facilities that THPs used and interviewing 50 respondents who were purposefully selected. The findings of the study revealed that the government didn’t fund TM, that there was no proper administrative coordination of TM, poor representation of THPs in the TM administration organs and that THPs were unaware of the laws that guided their practices. We recommend reviewing the health policy to includes a detailed administrative structure for TM, a source of funds for TM and proper representation of THPs in the TM administration organs.

In: The African Review
In: Brill's Journal of Afroasiatic Languages and Linguistics

Abstract

As various studies have uncovered, a significant number of states in Africa remain in abject poverty and are underdeveloped, long after the end of colonialism. These degrading economic conditions are further reinforced by authoritarian political cultures, unending instability and civil wars. The few exceptions include Botswana, South Africa and Mauritius. To stimulate national economic and social progress, African countries have experimented with different development models. In this paper, we compare the developmental state experiences of Ethiopia and Mauritius. A qualitative research approach was used, and the study is based entirely on an analysis of secondary data sources. The analysis proceeds by using comparative techniques. The findings of the study reveal that though the employment of the developmental state model resulted in growth in both Ethiopia and Mauritius, the way in which they instituted key policies and institutions of the developmental state has been quite different.

In: Africa Review

Abstract

This study attempts to offer a single unified account for the syntactic features of the pronominal copula in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), traditionally known as ḍamīr al-faṣl ‘Separation Pronoun/SP’ within the Cardiff Grammar (CG) model of Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG). Such a pronoun is typically used in nominal verbless clauses to separate Subject from its Predicate (Complement) when both are definite. This study argues against the two traditional accounts that analyze it either as a redundant pronoun that has no significant syntactical function or as the second Subject in the nominal embedded clausal Complement of the first Subject. The study also proposes that the modern generative account that considers it a pronominal copula is problematic as the function of this pronoun is not linking, but rather separating, emphasizing, and disambiguating. Therefore, the study proposes to analyze this SP as an Extension of the Subject (SEx) in a tripartite structure.

In: Brill's Journal of Afroasiatic Languages and Linguistics