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In 2017, a book was published entitled ‘Insects as food and feed: from production to consumption’ (Van Huis and Tomberlin, 2017). However, the sector of insects as food and feed is developing so quickly that an update seems appropriate. This book ‘Advancement of insects as food and feed in a circular economyy’ is a reprint of the Special Isse in Open Access in the Journal of Insects as Food and Feed. All chapters dealt with relevant topics related to insects as food and feed, and most of the content of the articles is different from the 2017 book, reflecting developments in the field.
Universal Model of Water Resources Management
The conservation of water resources together with environment protection will be a challenge for the European Union within the 21st century. Water management nowadays involves the cooperation of farmers, societies, industry and public administration. The solution based model of water protection in this book describes the creation of local water partnerships by local actors and stakeholders for the management of local water resources. These local water partnerships will enable the integration of the local community to comprehensively solve problems related to water security, while also cooperating with neighbouring partnerships. The local water strategy is based on local needs and priorities with reference to regional, national and global objectives. This strategy also provides for environment and species protection, as envisioned by the New Green Deal and the current EU actions to make the key economic sectors more resistant to climate change. The model for water protection can also be used to reduce the carbon footprint and environmental transformation within Europe.
Volume Editors: , , and
This interdisciplinary volume provides a comprehensive and rich analysis of the century-long socio-ecological transformation of Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Major globalised processes of agricultural intensification, biodiversity conservation efforts, and natural-resource extraction have simultaneously manifested themselves in this one location.

These processes have roots in the colonial period and have intensified in the past decades, after the establishment of the cut-flower industry and the geothermal-energy industry. The chapters in this volume exemplify the multiple, intertwined socio-environmental crises that consequently have played out in Naivasha in the past and the present, and that continue to shape its future.

Abstract

Chronic intestinal inflammation is associated with strong alterations of the microbial composition of the gut. Probiotic treatments and microbiota-targeting approaches have been considered to reduce the inflammation, improve both gut barrier function as well as overall gastrointestinal health. Here, a murine model of experimental colitis was used to assess the beneficial health effects of Bacillus subtilis SF106 and Bacillus clausii (recently renamed Shouchella clausii) SF174, two spore-forming strains previously characterised in vitro as potential probiotics. Experimental colitis was induced in BALB/c mice by the oral administration of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) and groups of animals treated with spores of either strain. Spores of both strains reduced the DSS-induced inflammation with spores of B. clausii SF174 more effective than B. subtilis SF106. Spores of both strains remodelled the mouse gut microbiota favouring the presence of beneficial microbes such as members of the Bacteroidetes and Akkermansia genera.

In: Beneficial Microbes

Abstract

The recycling of minerals is crucial for the future circular agriculture. Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) can accumulate minerals in their body. This study investigated the effects of adding mineral-enriched BSFL, grown on substrates containing sewage sludge recyclates (SSR), to broiler feed to reintroduce minerals from waste streams currently subject to regulatory restrictions back into the nutrient cycle. Feed, nutrient, mineral and heavy metal intake, growth, blood metabolites and immunoglobulins, bone characteristics and mineral status of broilers were studied in response to different mineral-enriched BSFL supplements. Eighty newly-hatched mixed-sex Ross 308 chicks were divided into four groups, with six replicate pens per group. BSFL used in the broiler experiment were grown either on a modified Gainesville fly diet (FD) (L-FD) or on FD supplemented with 4% of sewage sludge biochar (L-BCH), or on the FD supplemented with Single Superphosphate (SSP) SSR (L-SSP). All broilers were fed age-specific diets and either had no access to BSFL (CON) or received 15% of CON birds’ feed intake as defrosted BSFL from three different sources. Inclusion of 15% of mineral-enriched whole BSFL in broiler rations had no adverse effects on growth performance parameters, nutrient intakes, nutrient conversion efficiency, plasma metabolites and immunoglobulins ( P > 0.05 ). Birds in BSFL supply groups had higher serum Ca concentrations than CON birds ( P < 0.05 ). L-BCH supplied birds had a lower serum P than CON birds ( P < 0.05 ). Tibial characteristics and mineral status of birds were not affected by larvae supply ( P > 0.05 ). Heavy metal intake (manganese, iron, zinc, copper, arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) of the birds was not affected by dietary treatments ( P > 0.05 ). In conclusion, 15% of mineral-enriched-BSFL reared on SSP can be included in broiler diets for 42 experimental days without adverse effects on nutrient intakes, growth performance parameters and bone condition.

In: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed

Abstract

This study aims to analyze how knowledge flows occur between rural producers and the ecosystem of Medellín. Based on the case study method, 26 interviews were carried out, encompassing 10 rural producers and 16 actors of the ecosystem of Medellín, besides the documental analysis and direct observation, to complement the triangulation of the evidence sources. In the results, it was possible to map knowledge flows, identifying the actors of the ecosystem that interact with the rural producers of low technological incorporation. The University of Antioquia stands out with projects that involve producers in defining the demands to be met, but these are individualized actions on the part of the university, requiring greater integration of the other players in the ecosystem. The present study contributes with knowledge regarding a flow model to be replicated, in which a framework can be structured, to be investigated in other ecosystems, as well as its interactions with productive chains.

Open Access
In: International Food and Agribusiness Management Review

Abstract

Entomophagy, the practice of consuming insects, has long been recognized as a sustainable and renewable source of food. This study aimed at assessing the nutritional value of three species of wasp larvae (Provespa barthelemyi, Vespa mandarinia, and V. velutina) and explore effective strategies to address enzymatic browning during processing. The study reveals that wasp larvae exhibit considerable potential as a dietary resource, primarily due to their high protein content, more than 50% of the total dry matter. Remarkably, the presence of vitamin B2 in wasp larvae was unexpectedly high, with an average concentration of 2.20 mg/100 g. Additionally, enzymatic browning process in wasp larvae is closely associated with phenol oxidase (PO) activity. The simultaneous treatment of ascorbic acid at a concentration of 0.2% (w/v) and high hydrostatic pressure at 300 MPa significantly inhibited PO activity. Notably, the combined treatment exhibited a certain degree of efficacy in retaining the taste and texture of the larvae. To the best of our knowledge, this study pioneers the novel combined treatment aimed at mitigating browning in wasp larvae. Overall, our research reveals that wasp larvae boast a wealth of nutritional components, rendering them as a new resource food. Our research also provides an innovative approach for wasp processing.

In: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed

Abstract

Insects are garnering attention as promising protein sources for broiler diets, presenting nutritional and environmental benefits comparable to plant-based protein sources. Various insects have been explored as broiler feed ingredients, including mealworm (Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas morio), cricket (Gryllidae), grasshopper (Acrididae), black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens), silkworm pupae (Lepidoptera), bloodworm (Chironomidae), and housefly maggot (Musca domestica Linnaeus). We reviewed the literature involving these insects to assess their impact on broiler diets. Previous research has indicated that supplementing broiler diets with mealworm larvae meal (0.3 to 1.0% inclusion level) improved growth performance. Black soldier fly larvae meal (2.0 to 5.0% inclusion level) can replace protein sources. Similarly, dietary supplementation with silkworm pupae meal (1.5 to 5.0% inclusion level) can also replace protein sources, while including dietary supplementation with housefly maggot meal (1.6 to 4.0% inclusion level) enhanced growth performance in broiler chickens. However, few studies have focused on the effects of dried crickets, dried grasshoppers, and bloodworm supplementation on broiler performance and health. Despite the limitation that insects are more expensive compared to soybean meal or fishmeal, the short breeding period and the high nutritional content of insects make their use in broiler diets generally promising. Our meta-analysis of 28 studies on black soldier fly larvae supplementation found that it significantly decreased average daily feed intake and increased average daily gain with an optimal level of 15.3% determined through quadratic regression analysis. In conclusion, supplementing broiler diets with different insects has potential as a strategy to enhance the growth performance of broiler chickens without compromising overall health.

Open Access
In: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed
Authors: and

Abstract

Anecdotally, horse-riding is a ‘dangerous sport’, often grouped with activities such as motorcycling, skiing, parachuting, bull-riding, and rugby. This opinion is increasingly supported by evidence from retrospective analysis of trauma centre admissions for equestrian related incidents (ERI’s), albeit from relatively low numbers. The most common approach to reducing severity of ERI’s has focussed on encouraging the wearing of riding helmets and to a lesser extent, air-jackets and or body-protectors. Horse riders in the UK were surveyed to ascertain their experience of falls while riding in the preceding 12 months. A total of 3,757 responses were received with a subset of 1,977 complete surveys analysed. The majority of respondents were female (97%, n = 1,914). Falling off once in the last 12 months was most common (53.4%; n = 1,055); 24.2% (n = 478) had fallen off twice, 11.4% (n = 225) three times and 6.5% (n = 129) more than 5 times. Respondents were asked to specify the activity they were undertaking when their last fall occurred; hacking/trail riding (25.9%; n = 513), schooling on the flat (25.8%; n = 511) and showjumping schooling (19.4%; n = 384) were the three most common activities where falls took place. Horses changing direction rapidly (40.9%; n = 808) or rearing/bucking (23.8%; n = 470) were the most common reasons for rider falls, with most (73%; n = 1,443) riders falling off the side of the horse. Riders were most likely to injure their back (51%; n = 1,008), shoulders (39%; n = 771) or pelvis (37%; n = 731) when they fell off, but most injuries were self-rated as minor. Severe injuries as a result of a fall were more common when the riders’ head, back, shoulder or ankle was injured. A variety of factors appear to be involved in rider falls from horses, and many of these may be modifiable and hence preventable.

In: Comparative Exercise Physiology

Abstract

Silage maize in Michigan and the Great Lakes region is exposed to in-field ear and stalk rot fungal infections by Fusarium spp. which may result in production of toxic secondary metabolites called mycotoxins. These toxins can cause severe health complications in livestock but might remain unidentified as most silage maize is fed on-farm and not sold in formal markets. This study was conducted to quantify the status of mycotoxins and the agronomic management practices impacting their concentration in silage maize across Michigan farms. Samples (n = 122) were collected from across the state for three years (2019-2021). Results show that 100% of the samples tested positive for deoxynivalenol (DON) at detectable levels. Other mycotoxins that occurred frequently were zearalenone (ZEN), fumonisins, enniatins, and beauvericin (BEA). Mycotoxin concentration was found to vary across regions due to differences in weather parameters such as temperature and humidity, driven partly by the proximity of some regions to the Great Lakes. Mycotoxins were also found to co-occur, with an average of 13 mycotoxins in each sample. Strong correlations were observed between DON, ZEN, and BEA (r > 0.40). Crop rotation and planting date explained 91 and 68% variability in DON and fumonisin, respectively. Deoxynivalenol and fumonisin concentration was 20 and 67% higher in silage maize following a host crop of Fusarium spp. than a non-host crop. Planting silage maize between May 10 and May 30 increased the mycotoxin concentration by at least 50% than outside this window. However, tillage did not significantly impact mycotoxin occurrence and concentration. Overall, multiple mycotoxins were found in silage maize across the region and knowledge of their presence and contributing factors can help growers develop integrated management strategies to mitigate mycotoxin accumulation.

In: World Mycotoxin Journal