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Abstract

In recent years, various studies have investigated the growth of the larval stage of the black soldier fly (BSF). Nevertheless, the biology and reproductive behaviors of the adult is still largely unknown. Expanding the understanding of this area of research will assist the optimization of breeding-systems of BSF. In this present study, the mating behavior of BSF adults under summer sunlight conditions was evaluated. The number of couplings were evaluated based on a variety of environmental parameters that may have affected the copula: temperature (°C), humidity (RH) and light intensity (lux). 1000 g of pupae were put inside a cage to obtain one hundred adults to put in each three experimental units. Each specimen was then marked with an individual code in the dorsal portion of the thorax using fine-tipped acrylic markers and for each fly the body length parameters were taken. Individuals of interest were subsequently marked; in the first experiment only females, in the second only male, and in the third both sexes. During the trials observations were carried out from 9.30 am to 5.30 pm. During this time the key behaviors evaluated are as follows: mating, mating failure, struggles, deposition, failure to lay eggs, and multiple mating. The rate recorded in the Male and Female trials was 16.5%, but the peak of copulas changed with the trials. Mating events demonstrated strong positive correlation between light intensity (0.73) and humidity (0.64), whereas a negative correlation was seen between temperature and matings (−0.59). A weakly negative correlation was seen between deposition number and light intensity (−0.34) and humidity (−0.41), while positively correlated with the temperature (0.47). Multiple mating events were seen 2 times for females and up to 4 times for male.

In: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed

Abstract

Childhood obesity is a crucial public health concern worldwide. Dietary intervention is the most common intervention for the treatment of obesity. Therefore, we tested an improved diet-based nutritional interventions to improve the childhood obesity and its gut microbiota. Thirty obese children received a 12-week intervention with the adjust-energy-restricted dietary pattern (A-CRD). Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance (Inbody S10) and faecal microbes were profiled by sequencing 16S rRNA. Compared to the NTB group (at 0 week), the NTA group (at 12 weeks) had a significantly greater decrease in body weight, body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (PBF) ( P < 0.001 , respectively), whereas skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and fat free mass (FFM) were not statistically significantly different ( P > 0.05 ). The gut microbiota was found significantly different between the NTB and NTA groups based on alpha and beta diversity. Bifidobacterium, Blautia, and Streptococcus was significantly increased, whereas Bacteroides and Megamonas was significantly decreased in the NTA group ( P < 0.05 , respectively). Meanwhile, NTA group significantly increased the ability to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs; e.g. acetic acid/total dietary energy) and changed he predictive metabolic functional features of the microbiota communities ( P < 0.05 , respectively) than the NTB group. In conclusion, A-CRD can significantly improve childhood obesity, and the underlying mechanism may be its effect on gut microbiota and metabolism. Therefore, the diet-based nutrition intervention targeting gut microbiota will be more effective management of body weight and prevention of obesity.

Chinese Clinical Trial Register: ChiCTR2300074571

In: Beneficial Microbes

Abstract

Fusarium grain mould, or FGM, is caused by Fusarium species that most frequently infect sorghum during the early stages of grain development. Several toxigenic Fusarium species have been shown to be involved in FGM, the most frequently isolated being Fusarium verticillioides, Fusarium andiyazi, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium thapsinum, and Fusarium sacchari. The aim of the present study was to provide new insights on the occurrence of toxigenic fungi infecting sorghum cultivated in Hungary and the risk of contamination with mycotoxins. To reach this objective, the presence of toxigenic Fusarium isolates in sorghum samples was investigated; fungal species and capacity to produce mycotoxins were characterised for each isolated Fusarium strain. In a second step, the profile in tocochromanols and carotenoids of the two most widely cultivated sorghum varieties in Hungary was detailed and the effect of the predominant compounds on the biosynthesis of fumonisins and type B trichothecenes was investigated.

In: World Mycotoxin Journal

Abstract

Feed costs represent up to 60-70% of the total cost of poultry production, with protein sources being the most expensive feed component. Black soldier fly larvae meal (BSFLM) shows promise as a sustainable protein source for use in animal diets. This research was conducted to determine the effects of including up to 13% defatted BSFLM and a supplementary protease-based enzyme (Concentrase-P; CBS Bio Platforms, Inc., Calgary AB, Canada) on laying hen performance and egg quality. To test this objective, 180 Lohmann Brown-Lite hens (52 weeks of age) were fed experimental diets containing 0%, 6.5%, or 13% BSFLM, with or without Concentrase-P (3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments). The treatments were fed over 20 weeks. Results indicated reduced feed intake and body weight in laying hens fed a 13% dietary inclusion level of BSFLM ( P < 0.05 ), while other performance traits (egg production and FCR) were similar among treatments ( P > 0.05 ) and met industry performance standards. Shell weight and egg breaking strength did not significantly change with the dietary inclusion level of BSFLM or enzyme inclusion ( P > 0.05 ), although a significant decrease in egg weight and albumen height was noted ( P < 0.05 ), as well as a significant decrease in albumen height for the Concentrase-P treatments ( P < 0.05 ). Yolk colours were significantly lighter and redder in birds fed diets containing high levels of BSFLM ( P < 0.05 ). Results support the use of BSFLM at dietary inclusion levels up to 13% in laying hen diets. Concentrase-P does not appear to be required in combination with BSFLM in terms of growth and laying performance, although potential benefits to other physiological factors are worth consideration.

In: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed

Abstract

The effect of substituting Hermetia illucens (HI) meal for fish meal (FM) on the growth performance, survival rate, feed utilization, digestive enzyme activity, immunological function, and flesh quality of Clarias magur (average weight = 3.3 ± 0.05 g) is investigated in this work. Four iso-nitrogenous diets with 35% crude protein were formulated, each with varying levels of HI substitution: HI25%, HI50%, HI75%, and HI100%, then compared to a control diet (HI0%). Following a 90-day experiment, it was observed that the growth performance and feed efficiency were significantly improved at the 50% level ( P < 0.05 ). However, the control group exhibited greater levels of digestive enzymes, specifically protease and lipase activity. The fish’s health status remained unaffected by the substitution of fishmeal, while the 50% HI group showed significant improvements. The high levels of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT, as well as the metabolic product MDA, suggested enhanced antioxidant activity in the groups that received HI inclusion. However, as the substitution level reached 100%, the quality of the flesh decreased, as indicated by increased lipid and adhesiveness, as well as decreased L* and WI ( P < 0.05 ). The findings of the study suggest that HI larvae can replace FM in diet of C. magur. Overall, at 50% level of HI larvae meal inclusion in diet, better growth and immune function was evident, but it does lead to a decrease in flesh quality. This study enhances the existing knowledge on substituting fish meal with insect meal in catfish that are of regional importance. Additionally, it emphasizes the necessity for additional investigation to examine the underlying mechanisms employing biotechnological approaches.

In: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed

Abstract

The biological valorisation of edible insects is an eco-saving approach that may increase their use for food and feeding purposes. Beetles of T. molitor are a direct waste of insect farms since their protein have a low digestibility. Currently, the degree of hydrolysis achieved with biological treatments are much lower than with chemical treatments. This work focused on the enzymatic hydrolysis of protein from T. molitor beetles using proteases. The obtained protein hydrolysate was evaluated regarding the digestibility and functional properties. Higher hydrolysis degree (HD; 47%) was obtained using a protease from Aspergillus oryzae, which efficiently separated protein from chitin. A full factorial design determined that a liquid:solid ratio (LSR) of 15 and an enzyme load of 3200 U/g increase HD up to 78%. The protein hydrolysate showed higher digestibility (77.3%) compared to beetles’ meal before (17.8%) and after defatting (25.7%). The protein hydrolysate showed a high antioxidant activity (462.1 ± 7.48 μmol TE/g DW), it was highly soluble at pH ranging between 3 and 9 and showed an emulsification activity and stability of 53.6% and 82.2%, respectively. Therefore, this bioprocess improved the use of beetles, obtaining protein with greater digestibility to be used as food.

In: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed

Abstract

Saddles are almost certainly one of the most commonly used pieces of equipment and are used by the majority of riders in many equestrian disciplines. Despite a large number of studies relating to saddle fit and function, there appear to be no published data describing the basic demographics of saddle use, rider preferences or discipline differences. This study was designed as an online survey consisting of 20 closed questions and 4 open free text questions split into three sections: (1) participant demographics; (2) saddle use; and (3) impact of saddle use on the horse and rider. The survey was live for 20 days and 65% of the responses were obtained within the first 8 days. A total of 4,527 horse owners/keepers undertook the survey with 3,624 complete responses (80.1% completion rate). The majority of respondents were female (98.1%, n = 3,555). The four most popular disciplines respondents participated in were pleasure riding/hacking (82.6%, n = 2,994), dressage (71.6%, n = 2,595), show jumping (48.2%, n = 1,747) and eventing (33.3%, n = 1,205). Most horse owners and keepers engaged in non-competitive or local/unaffiliated level competition (59.0%, n = 2,136). The majority of respondents (59.2%, n = 2,145) did not use saddles on more than one horse. When selecting a saddle, respondents valued comfort for the horse as essential (92.6%, n = 4,073), followed by injury prevention (essential; 66.5%, n = 2,838) and then performance related attributes (essential; 56.9%, n = 2,459). When selecting a saddle to buy, durability was the most important feature for respondents (92.5%), who also rated weight, price, and leather (63.0%, 66.5% and 67.7%, respectively) as key attributes they would require.

In: Comparative Exercise Physiology

Abstract

Maize is prone to aflatoxin contamination prevailing in the high-risk regions in Kenya, where maize is rendered unfit for uses as food and feed. The objective of the study was to identify strategies that can be used to decontaminate aflatoxin in contaminated maize. Therefore, an experiment was conducted using maize from Kilifi contaminated with aflatoxin soaked in different solutions, done as single and combined treatments. Maize grains were used in portions of 250 g for the mitigation experiments and placed in conical flasks of 1 litre capacity and treatment application done. All the treatments were compared to the control with no treatment applied and set to 100%. The results revealed that, aflatoxin was reduced by 78.9% by soaking maize kernels in distilled water for 24 h under a single treatment. Soaking in aqueous ammonia for 24 h reduced aflatoxin by 68.1%. Soaking grains in sodium bisulphite for 24 h reduced by 59.3% and citric acid by 38.8%. The combination of sorting and aqueous ammonia was most effective with 90.8% aflatoxin reduction. The combination of sorting and sodium bisulphite lowered the levels to 72.9%, while citric acid and dehulling were 55.3% effective. Aflatoxin reduction methods to levels that are within the allowable limits of 10 μg/kg and 20 μg/kg will enable grains to be used as human food and livestock feed, respectively. Therefore, effective methods should be adopted by farmers to put maize to good use for human food and livestock feed instead of throwing away or using it with the high levels of aflatoxin.

In: World Mycotoxin Journal

Abstract

The transport of live insects is becoming increasingly common within the food and feed industry. However, very little information is available as to its effects on the insects themselves. The aim of this study was to monitor how variation in transport conditions, such as duration of transport and external temperature and humidity, directly and indirectly affect the survival and growth of nymphs of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus. In addition, we investigated the effect of external temperature on the viability of eggs upon completion of a transport event. We investigated how four different temperatures (5 °C, 15 °C, 25 °C, 35 °C) and four possible transport durations (1, 2, 3, 6 days) affected survival and growth of the cricket nymphs. To gain insight into the potential transport of eggs, its effect on egg hatch-rate was studied by storing eggs at three different temperatures (6 °C, 18 °C and 30 °C) before moving the eggs to optimal hatching conditions. We found that humidity remained constant inside the transport boxes and was different from the exterior humidity. Temperature had a significant effect on nymph survival and growth. The extreme temperatures negatively affected nymph survival, and increased temperature was correlated with increased growth. The development of eggs was also sensitive to temperature, and transport of eggs at suboptimal temperatures prolonged incubation time considerably. Finally, based on the results of this study, we discuss temperature optimisation as the most critical factor to consider during transport of live house cricket nymphs and eggs.

Open Access
In: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed
Authors: and

Abstract

Edible insects have gained increasing interest in circular economy research due to their potential as sustainable alternative protein sources and waste managers, which can initiate circular systems; however, challenges exist to closing the loops of insect supply chains, leading to a broader failure to attain sustainable development goals (SDGs). The potential of 3D food printing (3DFP) aligns with circular economy principles; thus, it can be used to promote the development of a circular economy and contribute to the SDGs. As such, its efficiency should be further investigated, specifically in circular insect supply chains (CISCs), to fill a gap in the current literature. We present a narrative review of the extant research to understand how 3DFP can promote the CISCs and help achieve the SDGs. The findings are clearly articulated based on themes of the SDGs: people, prosperity, planet and partnership. Our results confirm that 3DFP promotes the CISCs and can contribute to achieving the SDGs as follows: people by enhancing food security (SDG 1, 2 and 3), prosperity by promoting economic growth (SDG 7, 8, 9, 11 and 12), planet by reducing environmental impacts (SDG 13) and partnership by fostering interdisciplinary collaborations (SDG 17). These findings offer researchers valuable insights that can shape potential development pathways and future research directions. Utilising the potential of 3DFP, stakeholders can drive sustainable development efforts.

In: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed