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Life Sciences collection with topics in Animal and Veterinary, Food and Health, Agribusiness and Rural Studies, Agriculture and Environment.
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The current principle of cascading use of biomass considers a formation of food and feed, prior to the production of materials and chemicals as well as energy. Cascading use of biomass shall promote efficient use of bio-based resources through dissemination of best practices and support for innovation in the bio-economy and follow the principles sustainability, resource efficiency, circularity, new markets and products as well as subsidiarity. This contribution introduces the concept of waste to food conversion as a new approach to efficiently utilise organic waste. Focus has been laid on the extraction of food ingredients and in particular proteins from organic waste. Requirements and processes have been presented which are required to open new cascading use and paths for new utilisation strategies of organic waste. Stages from waste separation, pretreatment as well as extraction have been illuminated regarding the use of organic waste as protein source. Furthermore, advantages and implementation of this concept in urban areas has been described. In the future, this could reduce the urban demand for externally produced food. Correspondingly, less food needs to be produced by means of intensive land use and transported long distances to the city. Even though such an approach can be considered as provocative it is worth investigating.

In: Waste to Food
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The agrifood value chain has multiple stakeholders involved in all stages from production to post waste management. They range from private companies’ decision makers with a stake in the production and delivery processes, to workers and their communities, to consumers, to policy makers, to researchers and scholars. Reducing the impacts of the value chain requires that these stakeholders develop a common understanding and co-participate complex decision-making processes which include trade-offs. To do so, they need approaches that can capture and integrate the different points of view and allow them to interact with each other on common ground and reach consensual decisions. In the chapter we present a bottom-up participatory collaborative approach to mapping the value chain from raw materials to post waste management and its interactions with the ecosystem’ services which has been successfully tested on different segments of the agrifood value chain. The approach, called ALCHEMY (a participatory coLlaborative approaCh to mapping the interactions between value cHain, the EnvironMent and societY), captures the perspectives of the many stakeholders, i.e. business decision makers, policy makers, communities, researchers through the use of standardised iteratively updated maps. Through the maps the stakeholders build shared future lower impact scenarios, where environmental management interventions are agreed and the evaluation of environmental benefits is consensual. The maps can be used by all stakeholders for monitoring, reporting and evaluation on the progress of the interventions, and for co-creation of solutions. The approach has been successfully applied to co-design potential solutions to the consumer segment impact-reduction problem and the circular economy focused end-of-life post-consumer waste problem. ALCHEMY could be of help for policy makers, decision makers in enterprises, communities that depend on the value chain, advocacy organisations and the academic community to develop real world low impact low waste solutions.

In: Waste to Food
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Artificial intelligence (AI) applications include pattern recognition, events predictions, optimisation and generation of recommendations, to name a few. AI works over data, for example, produced by different sub-systems that comprise a food supply chain (FSC), such as in farms, food industries, distribution centres and retail stores, collected as food product transactions occurrences or by sensoring tools, equipment and solutions across the FSC. The adoption of AI in the FSC, along with technologies, such as Industry 4.0, the Internet of Things (IoT), the GS1 labelling schemes and other emergent technologies, such as blockchain, provides a basis for integrating the food value chain by sharing FSC transactions via a distributed trustworthy platform which potentially enables the realisation of the circular food supply chain (CFSC). This chapter describes the CFSC concept, features, value propositions, requirements, the technologies and systems for supporting it, and applications of AI in food quality and supply chain optimisation.

In: Waste to Food

Reducing food waste can provide multiple benefits for both society and the globe, being mandatory to find ways to increase the efficiency of the food system, security, and nutrition, and to contribute towards environmental sustainability. In this chapter, we present the application of waste to food concept to propose some alternative and new solutions focusing on biobased materials and methods, i.e. green and sustainable extraction or transformation of high added-value components from food waste as biotechnological cascades to produce components for food and non-food purposes, optimisation of production and consumption, development of novel preservation technologies able to store nutrients in food biomass in multiyear scale, the role of artificial intelligence and the related ethical aspects.

In: Waste to Food

Food production is assumed as one of the most important human industries. Moreover, it is responsible for a range of environmental impacts, especially in developed countries. One of the biggest environmental impacts of the food industry is the production of wastes. Therefore, the concept of circular economy is more and more assumed as a possible solution for enhancement and optimisation of food production. Based on this concept, the product that has been called as waste can have a second life and be transformed into raw materials. Moreover, the majority of side streams are rich in valuable compounds. Therefore, this chapter will discuss the legislative requirements for the use of side streams for food production. Additionally, it will elaborate different examples of valorisation with conventional and emerging technologies.

In: Waste to Food

Oils and fats are essential elements of the human diet. Therefore, there has been an increasing trend in cultivation of oil crops all over the world. However, the oil processing industry generates large amounts of by-products and wastes, particularly oilseed meals. These products were utilised only as feed until recently, provided that proper treatments are applied. On the other hand, since several studies have revealed attractive results about compositions and health effects of oilseed meals, many attempts have been made to evaluate them for different purposes including intended for human nutrition. Oilseed meals are generally rich in protein and bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, dietary fibres, and lignans. Hence, they are regarded as valuable vehicles for food fortification primarily to prevent malnutrition and improve human health. Furthermore, numerous products such as edible films, protein concentrates, isolates, emulsifiers may be obtained by properly processing these wastes and by-products. This chapter deals with the properties and uses areas of oilseed meals that have emerged in the oil processing industry.

In: Waste to Food
Authors: and

This chapter is a summary of a series of studies with the objective of developing and demonstrating a commercially viable circular model of food and energy production, based on current methods but with modified technology. The functional principle was to a degree inspired by closed-loop ecosystems for life support in space, yet modified to terrestrial practicalities in functioning markets. The system incorporates units that currently operate in the Norwegian economy and represent the value chain of food production linked with waste recycling. The work was led by the waste company Lindum, owned by the municipality of Drammen, Norway. Success was established by identifying synergistic components and customising technology and horticulture methodology to link the value chain together. In addition, renewable carbon neutral vehicle-grade fuel (biomethane) is produced as a by-product. This was achieved by utilising end-products of anaerobic digestion (AD), digestate and carbon dioxide (CO2), as growing substrate and fertiliser, in conjunction with (vermi)compost science, in a specially designed energy-efficient greenhouse to grow commercially viable harvests of mushrooms and vegetables. The technique is dubbed digeponics. Circularity was achieved to the degree that wastes from the market (source separated municipal organic wastes) were refined and re-incorporated into new food products on demand from the same markets, with minimal external inputs including energy. This contrasts with conventional controlled environmental agriculture (CEA) which for the most part use non-renewable inputs such as mineral fertilisers and growing media, pesticides, fossil CO2 and extensive use of energy. At the same time, resource efficiency was enhanced by diverting the refined (waste) products into higher-value production. In addition, residual energy in the waste was made available to the same markets. Some systemic challenges and solutions, such as heavy metal loading, nutrient cycling and disease suppression are also addressed, with conclusions and proposals for future work.

In: Waste to Food
Authors: and

Nature holds a great potential of complex valuable compounds that either are important precursor structures for derivatization in chemistry or pharmacy or are in itself structures or molecule mixtures with bioactivity that are yet too complex for synthetic production. Waste biomass is an additional resource of these structures that has too long been neglected. However, as the aims to build a sustainable fossil-free and bio-based economy from politics are clear, residues and waste from food production and consumption can no longer be overlooked. The production of biomass in addition to food supply would cost too much land and other resources, especially considering climate change effects of and on agriculture. Therefore, cascade approaches and holistic, full-potential use of biomass are in focus. Novel biorefineries should encompass circular and cascadian processes in order to ensure more sustainability. This chapter will focus on the extraction and potentials of high-value chemical compounds that can be directly obtained from residual biomass but also consider associated limitations like natural fluctuations, seasonal dependencies or harmonised extraction methods. Resources like vegetable oils, seafood and livestock remains, algal biomass, lignocellulosic biomass fruit pomace and waste food or water can deliver compounds for use in several high value bioproducts like biopharmaceuticals, bionutrients, biochemicals, biofertilizers, and biomaterials. Many of those are relevant as additives for food production, e.g. dyes, antioxidants, or health-beneficial additives. Another important field of application are biocosmetics or biocleanser where extracted compounds from residual biomass can be used as antioxidants, surfactants, emulsifiers, thickeners, fragrances, collagen analoga and dyes.

Open Access
In: Waste to Food
Author:

The food losses and waste are one of the major issues occurring throughout the food supply chain that has a negative impact on climate change and livelihoods. Hence, the modern food industries are constantly looking for sustainable strategies in order to avoid or valorise this food waste. In the present chapter, the emergent electrotechnologies, such as high voltage electrical treatments and electromembrane technologies will be discussed in terms of their use for converting food waste or by-products into high added value components. For each technology, the operation principles as well as conventional and novel applications in different food sectors (e.g. meat, dairy, plant, fish) will be considered. Eventually, the main technological issues as well as research and development perspectives will be highlighted.

In: Waste to Food