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Ibn al-Azraq (d. 896/1491) was a renowned Andalusian jurist (faqīh) and statesman who lived during the final period of the Nasrid emirate of Granada. His most famous work, Badāʾiʿ al-Silk fī Ṭabāʾiʿ al-Mulk (Unprecedented Lines about the Nature of Political Rule), is a political treatise that builds upon Ibn Khaldūn’s (d. 808/1406) social theory (Ꜥilm al-Ꜥumrān). In The grand critic of Ibn Khaldūn Elena Şahin critically analyses the major aspects of Ibn al-Azraq’s political thought.
In this contribution on the field of the history of Islamic political thought, Elena Şahin demonstrates that while Ibn al-Azraq integrates the thrust of Ibn Khaldūn’s approach, Ibn al-Azraq’s work should be regarded as part of a larger conversation amongst various scholars, engaging, for example with the Andalusian jurist al-Shāṭibī’s (d. 790/1388) theory of Maqāṣid al-Sharīʿa. Widening the analysis of Ibn al-Azraq’s work illuminates that Ibn al-Azraq’s political theory was in opposition to that of Ibn Khaldūn, and thus gives us a better understanding of the dynamic debates within Andalusian political thought.
This book examines Gregory Palamas’ perspective on light, applying the “metaphysics of light” framework introduced by Clemens Baeumker, and reconceptualizing it to present a new theoretical approach to Palamas’ thought. It delves into how Palamas interprets light, covering its ontological, epistemological, and transformative aspects, which he articulates through the integration of scriptural exegesis and the direct experiences of monastic prayer.
Palamas’ concepts are thoroughly analyzed, from the essence-energy distinction to the possibilities of experiencing the divine through the body in present life. This book situates Palamas’ thought within both its historical context and the broader spectrum of metaphysics, thereby promoting a philosophical understanding.
Inviting readers interested in the intersections of Byzantine theology, philosophy, and metaphysics, this work offers a meticulous study of a system that challenges the conventional limits of corporeality and finitude.
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This book is a major early work of Japanese philosopher Wataru Hiromatsu (1933-1994). Originally published in 1972, the primary theme is overcoming the subject-object schema of modern philosophy.

Hiromatsu seeks to replace this subject-object schema with what he calls the intersubjective fourfold structure, in which “the given is valid as something more to someone as someone more.” This fourfold structure is not a sum of four independent elements, but exists only as a functional relationship. From this relationist point of view, Hiromatsu develops his philosophical theory as a systematic critique of “reification,” defined as the hypostatizing misconception of a functional relation.
An Alchemist in the Amphitheatre of Eternal Wisdom
The German physician, alchemist, kabbalist, and theosopher Heinrich Khunrath (ca. 1560–1605) is one of the most remarkable figures in the intellectual history of the Renaissance. His work, combining text and images in a new way, is a fusion of the contemporary currents of thought in which alchemy went hand-in-hand with philosophy and Lutheran heterodox theology. As a follower of Paracelsus, Khunrath was in search of both the secrets of nature and and the knowledge of God -- the “theosophy”. This
This volume sheds new light on the intellectual history of the Renaissance by focusing on the neglected paradigm of scholasticism. Its chapters aim to recast our present understanding of familiar features of Renaissance thought by showing that many of the assumed innovations of the period took place as a result of a dialogue between plural traditions of scholasticism and the emerging methods of humanism. Written by a team of internationally recognized experts, the volume seeks to further enfranchise scholasticism as an integral aspect of Renaissance intellectual history and explain its value to the study of humanism and early modern philosophy.