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Nature, Order and the Divine
Volume Editors: and
This volume explores important aspects of the life and writings of Anselm of Canterbury. His is a world in which the created order with its hierarchies of natures and roles manifests a divine order that proceeds from the divine nature.
Individual chapters examine Anselm’s understanding of rectitude, truth, justice and redemption, the relationship of free will and grace and of faith and reason, whether and how we can speak of or reject the divine, Anselm’s approach to death, his understanding of the superiority of monasticism in the social and spiritual order, and the role that angels play in his metaphysical and theological arguments.
This volume tells the story of the Arabic translations of the Church Fathers. By tracing the history of major translation centres, such as Palestine, Sinai, and Antioch, it describes how Middle Eastern Christians translated into Arabic, preserved, and engaged with their Patristic heritage. In addition to well known authors, such as Gregory of Nazianzus, Ephrem the Syrian, and Dionysius the Areopagite, the volume presents a Patristic treatise written in Greek but preserved only in Arabic: the Noetic Paradise. Finally, by reconstructing a lost Arabic Dionysian paraphrase used by the Muslim theologian al-Ghazali, the volume explores Patristic influences on Islamic thought.
Ibn al-Azraq (d. 896/1491) was a renowned Andalusian jurist (faqīh) and statesman who lived during the final period of the Nasrid emirate of Granada. His most famous work, Badāʾiʿ al-Silk fī Ṭabāʾiʿ al-Mulk (Unprecedented Lines about the Nature of Political Rule), is a political treatise that builds upon Ibn Khaldūn’s (d. 808/1406) social theory (Ꜥilm al-Ꜥumrān). In The grand critic of Ibn Khaldūn Elena Şahin critically analyses the major aspects of Ibn al-Azraq’s political thought.
In this contribution on the field of the history of Islamic political thought, Elena Şahin demonstrates that while Ibn al-Azraq integrates the thrust of Ibn Khaldūn’s approach, Ibn al-Azraq’s work should be regarded as part of a larger conversation amongst various scholars, engaging, for example with the Andalusian jurist al-Shāṭibī’s (d. 790/1388) theory of Maqāṣid al-Sharīʿa. Widening the analysis of Ibn al-Azraq’s work illuminates that Ibn al-Azraq’s political theory was in opposition to that of Ibn Khaldūn, and thus gives us a better understanding of the dynamic debates within Andalusian political thought.
This book examines Gregory Palamas’ perspective on light, applying the “metaphysics of light” framework introduced by Clemens Baeumker, and reconceptualizing it to present a new theoretical approach to Palamas’ thought. It delves into how Palamas interprets light, covering its ontological, epistemological, and transformative aspects, which he articulates through the integration of scriptural exegesis and the direct experiences of monastic prayer.
Palamas’ concepts are thoroughly analyzed, from the essence-energy distinction to the possibilities of experiencing the divine through the body in present life. This book situates Palamas’ thought within both its historical context and the broader spectrum of metaphysics, thereby promoting a philosophical understanding.
Inviting readers interested in the intersections of Byzantine theology, philosophy, and metaphysics, this work offers a meticulous study of a system that challenges the conventional limits of corporeality and finitude.
Editor / Translator:
This book is a major early work of Japanese philosopher Wataru Hiromatsu (1933-1994). Originally published in 1972, the primary theme is overcoming the subject-object schema of modern philosophy.

Hiromatsu seeks to replace this subject-object schema with what he calls the intersubjective fourfold structure, in which “the given is valid as something more to someone as someone more.” This fourfold structure is not a sum of four independent elements, but exists only as a functional relationship. From this relationist point of view, Hiromatsu develops his philosophical theory as a systematic critique of “reification,” defined as the hypostatizing misconception of a functional relation.