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[Humor in Early Islam: Ashʿab and the Anecdotes on Him as a Case Study]
نظر ‌أشعب إلى شيخٍ قبيح الوجه؛ فقال: ألم ينهكم ‌سُليمان بن داود عن أن تخرجوا بالنهار؟
إن الفكاهة عمليَّةٌ متعلقةٌ بالسرور والبهجة واكتشافهما وتذوقهما وإبداعهما. ويذهب الفلاسفة والأطباء اليونانيين إلى أن توازن السوائل في جسم الإنسان؛ يتحكم في الصحة والعواطف البشريَّة، ومنها الضحك. ولكن هل العرب أو المسلمون يضحكون؟ نُقدم للقارئ العربيّ الترجمة العربيَّة لكتاب فرانز روزنثال الموسوم بـ "الفكاهة في الإسلام المُبكر". تهدف هذه الدراسة إلى تبديد الرأي، الذي يتبناه الكثير من الناس في العالم الغربيّ، أن "الإسلام" يكره الفُكَاهَة. يحتوي هذا الكتاب على قصصٍ عربيَّةٍ عن شخصيَّةٍ أصبحت موضوعًا للعديد من الفُكاهات والحكايات، وهي شخصيَّة أشعب الطماع، وهو مغنٍ عاش في القرن الثاني الهجري/الثامن الميلاديّ. ولكن حياته الأدبيَّة والخياليَّة ظلت موجودةً لفترةٍ طويلةٍ. وتسبق هذه الحكايات فصولٌ بحثيَّةٍ عن المواد النصيَّة الخاصة بالفكاهة في الإسلام، وأيضًا، عن الشخصيات التأريخيَّة والأسطوريَّة لأشعب. وينتهي الكتاب بملحقٍ قصيرٍ عن الضحك. وسواءً أكانت الفكاهات ستجعل القارئ المعاصر يضحك أم لا؛ فإن هذا الكتاب يُعد مصدرًا قيّمًا لأولئك المهتمين، جديًّا، بثقافة الفكاهة في الإسلام المُبكر.


Ashʿab looked at a shaykh with an ugly face and exclaimed: "Did Sulaymân b. Dâwûd not forbid you to come out by day?". Humor is a process related to pleasure and joy, discovering them, savoring them, and creating them. Greek philosophers and doctors believe that the balance of fluids in the human body; It controls health and human emotions, including laughter. But are Arabs or Muslims laughing? We present to the Arab reader the Arabic translation of Franz Rosenthal's book entitled "Humor in Early Islam." This study aims to dispel the opinion held by many people in the Western world that Islam hates humor. This book contains Arabic stories about a character who has become the subject of many jokes and tales, namely the greedy Ashʿab, a singer who lived in the second century A.H./eighth A.D. But his literary and imaginative life continued for a long time. These stories are preceded by research chapters on the textual materials related to humor in Islam, and also on the historical and legendary figures of Ashʿab. The book ends with a short appendix on laughter. Whether the humor will make the modern reader laugh or not; This book is a valuable resource for those seriously interested in the culture of humor in early Islam.
Genèse et problématiques
Cet ouvrage analyse la genèse de la notion d’adab, quelques grandes œuvres fondatrices depuis le milieu du 19° siècle, la constitution des grands genres à partir des grands modèles classiques mis au contact de la littérature occidentale. Il traite également de la fonction dévolue à la littérature dans la compréhension du sens de la vie. Il insiste particulièrement sur l’engagement de la littérature dans l’identification des principaux obstacles à la modernisation des structures sociales, politiques et culturelles, à la démocratie, au rapport individu/collectif. Il met en lumière certains grands combats: pour l’indépendance l’altérité, l’universalisme et la créativité. Cet ouvrage traite la culture arabe comme totalité, sans privilégier un pays ou, comme c’est l’habitude, le critère religieux, à savoir l’islam.

This work analyses the emergence of the notion of adab, some major foundational works from the mid-19th century onwards, and the formation of major genres based on the cross-fertilisation of the iconic classical models and Western literature. It also deals with the function assigned to literature in understanding the meaning of life. The volume particularly emphasizes the commitment of literature to the identification of the main obstacles to the modernization of social, political and cultural structures, democracy, and the individual/collective relationship. It highlights certain major struggles: for independence, otherness, universalism and creativity. This work has a holistic approach to Arab culture, without favouring a country or, as is usual, the religious criterion, namely Islam.
Series Editors: and
The series offers a platform for studies in literature and the performing arts of the Muslim World at large, covering all periods (pre-modern to present day) and a wide variety of cultural traditions and languages (including, but not limited to, Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Urdu, and other Asian and African languages and practices). It draws scholars from various fields such as literature, theater, music and dance, folklore and epic, liturgy and rituals, cinema and media studies, and popular culture. It encourages and fosters comparative and interdisciplinary studies.

In addition to monographs, the series welcomes text editions and translations of significant primary texts, as well as thematic collections of articles.

The series has published an average of one title per year since 2014.

If you are working on a book that would be suitable for this series, please do not hesitate to get in touch with Acquisitions Editor Teddi Dols (Teddi.Dols@brill.com).
Author:

Abstract

During the past thirty years, scholars of Arab cultural politics have struggled to articulate modern Palestinians’ unique ways of viewing the medieval past. Al-Andalus in particular fascinates authors and visual artists of Palestine. Our current theoretical framework within Arabic literature is poorly adapted to the sweeping historiography that these authors and artists create. This article revises the academic consensus that nostalgia is the organizing principle for Palestinian expressions of Andalusi identity. It provides a new way to understand the relationship between modern Palestinian poetics and the idea of a past Arab Iberia. Shifting from the affective theory of nostalgia that culminated in the early 1990s, I argue that Palestine’s version of al-Andalus in the twenty-first century works primarily as an artistic technique of reading Maghrebi texts rather than as an idyllic geographic place.

In: Journal of Arabic Literature

Abstract

Through a close reading of several poems by Maḥmūd Darwīsh, this article argues for the critical distinction between the concepts of metaphor and metonymy in Darwīsh’s work, expanding on the claim that in Darwīsh’s poetry, “Palestine endured and became metaphor.” It argues that metonymy, which might be understood as a form of direct replacement, forecloses imaginative possibilities (both poetic and political) in a way that is related to the work of colonial violence. Metaphor, by contrast, represents a form of imaginative work that opens out onto possibilities that are concealed by the literal and is thus structurally similar to the work of solidarity. Metaphor, as deployed by Darwīsh in his poetics, can become a mode of recapturing possibilities from a past that the present has attempted to obliterate. It can thus be read as pointing towards a different sort of future, one that aligns with the struggle for decolonization (more specifically, the decolonization of Palestine). The essay concludes by outlining the critical work that would be receptive to such a poetics as a form of solidarity.

In: Journal of Arabic Literature
Author:

Abstract

This article addresses a discursive problem with the study of Palestinian literature alongside Israeli literature: by focusing on the intersections between Hebrew and Arabic literatures, scholars have created a hybrid that precludes comparison between two separate entities. This article surveys the theoretical and political drawbacks of this approach and then moves to theorize Palestinian literature outside its pairing with Israeli literature as a global multilingual literary system that is major yet non-hegemonic. I suggest that Palestinian literature can be informed by theories of world literature, on the one hand, and inform world literature about the way diasporic literature moves in the world, on the other hand. Last, I discuss the novel Tafṣīl thānawī by ʿAdanīyah Shiblī in order to demonstrate a possible expansion of the grounds of comparison once a work of Palestinian literature like this one is read beyond its dialogue with Israeli culture.

Open Access
In: Journal of Arabic Literature
Free access
In: Journal of Arabic Literature
In: Journal of Arabic Literature