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Case Studies on Archaeology (Landscape Archaeology and Artefacts), Texts, Online Publishing, Digital Archiving, and Preservation
The new volume of the CyberResearch series brings together thirty-three authors under the umbrella of digital methods in Archaeology, Ancient Near Eastern Studies and Biblical studies.
Both a newbie and a professional reader will find here diverse research topics, accompanied by detailed presentations of digital methods: distant reading of text corpora, GIS digital imaging, and various methods of text analyses. The volume is divided into three parts under the headings of archaeology, texts and online publishing, and includes a wide range of approaches from the philosophical to the practical.
This volume brings the reader up-to-date research in the field of digital Ancient Near Eastern studies, and highlights emerging methods and practices. While not a textbook per se, the book is excellent for teaching and exploring the Digital Humanities.
rwḥ and Humanity in Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Job
רוח is vital to the Hebrew Bible’s understanding of God, the world, and humanity. However, the word defies easy categorisation or casual analysis, especially when referring to humans and their experiences.
Integrating insights from several sub-fields of Cognitive Linguistics with detailed exegesis, this book examines each anthropological use of רוח in Proverbs, Job, and Ecclesiastes, demonstrating how even complicated words in difficult passages can be fruitfully understood. As well as furthering the application of contemporary linguistics to ancient texts, this study sheds new light on the Hebrew Bible’s understanding of humanity and their relationship to the world and to the divine.
Author:
This annotated commentary of Pêcheux’s materialist theory of discourse anticipates the formation of a real social science which supersedes the metaphysical meanings of the empirical ideologies ‘always-already-there’. Structures of Language presents Pêcheux’s theory in reference to Ferdinand de Saussure’s epistemological breakthrough that founded the science of linguistics: the theoretical separation of sound from meaning. Noam Chomsky’s generative grammar, John Searle’s philosophy of language, B.F. Skinner’s indwelling agents, J.L. Austin’s speech situations, Lacan’s symbolic order, and the influential theories of other linguistic researchers, are cited to explain the functioning of semantic ideology.

Abstract

In this work, we consider the views of three exponents of major areas of linguistics – Levelt (psycholinguistics), Jackendoff (theoretical linguistics), and Gil (field linguistics) – regarding the issue of the universality or not of the conceptual structure of languages. In Levelt’s view, during language production, the conceptual structure of the preverbal message is language-specific. In Jackendoff’s theoretical approach to language – his parallel architecture – there is a universal conceptual structure shared by all languages, in contradiction to Levelt’s view. In Gil’s work on Riau Indonesian, he proposes a conceptual structure that is quite different from that of English, adopted by Jackendoff as universal. We find no reason to disagree with Gil’s view. In this way, we take Gil’s work as vindicating Levelt’s view that during language production preverbal messages are encoded with different conceptual structures for different languages.

In: Cognitive Semantics

Abstract

This study proposes a method for selection and analysis of words that refer to emotions. A comparison of 380 synonyms corresponding to the six basic emotions in 15 Spanish thesauri resulted in 43 terms. Respondents of an online survey (n = 980) stated whether they recognized and used each word and how often they experienced the designated emotion, which resulted in 23 terms. The correlation matrix for the selected terms frequencies and a multivariate analysis of the data revealed three affective dimensions: anger, fear, and satisfaction. The frequency for the terms was higher for women, who reported more panic and irritation than men. In both, the frequency of the negative emotions of fear and sadness decrease with age, while pleasure, satisfaction, and indignation increase. The results suggest the existence of three affective dimensions (anger/repulsion, fear/sorrow, and satisfaction/admiration), which have been recognized in neurobiological, ecological, ethological, and evolutionary models.

In: Cognitive Semantics

Abstract

Syllogism is a common form of deductive reasoning that requires precisely two premises and one conclusion. It is considered as a logical method to arrive at new information. However, there has been limited research on language-based syllogistic reasoning that is not typically used in logic textbooks. In support of this new field of study, the authors created a dataset comprised of common-sense English pair sentences and named it Avicenna. The results of the binary classification task indicate that humans recognize the syllogism with 98.16% and the Avicenna-trained model with 89.19% accuracy. The present study demonstrates that aided with special datasets, deep neural networks can understand human inference to an acceptable degree. Further, these networks can be used in designing comprehensive systems for automatic decision-making based on textual resources with near human-level accuracy.

In: Cognitive Semantics

Abstract

Over the past decades, several procedures have been developed to identify metaphors at the lexical level. However, because language is complex, there may not be one superior metaphor identification procedure that applies to all data. Moreover, metaphor identification inevitably involves decisions on linguistic form that may not work equally well with all linguistic frameworks. We introduce a Procedure for Identifying Metaphorical Scenes (pims) reflected and evoked by linguistic expressions in discourse. The procedure is a prerequisite for the identification of metaphorical meaning that extends over phrases or longer stretches of text other than those defined as lexical units in current metaphor identification procedures and better reflects the Cognitive Linguistic (cl) view that linguistic meaning is equal to complex conceptualizations (, ), embodied (), and simulation-based (). It takes the scenes evoked by the context into account and focuses on the experiences that are coded by the linguistic constructions.

Open Access
In: Cognitive Semantics
Author:

Abstract

According to Stocker (in press), seeing in visual experience (visual perception and visual imagery) is organized by Talmyan concept structuring. Here, it is proposed that during seeing in extrovertive visionary experience and extrovertive mystical experience, this visual concept structuring is largely or totally suspended—except for the perspective point (pp), which seems to remain in place in all human seeing. Complemented with cognitive-semantic analysis, characterizations of extrovertive visionary experience draw from the writer and philosopher Aldous Huxley, and characterizations of extrovertive mystical experience additionally from the theologian Rudolph Otto and the philosopher Walter Stace. It is also examined how well extrovertive visionary experience and extrovertive mystical experience are captured with altered-state-of-consciousness questionnaires. Potential benefits for the mind from temporary suspension of Talmyan concept structuring are discussed.

In: Cognitive Semantics
Author:

Abstract

The article explores sensations’ role in cognition through analyzing expressions in natural language in search of a sensory schema. I argue that if it exists, the schema originates from the universal need to differentiate between patterns by increasing contrasts, which is linguistically manifested in the practice of grading adjectives and adverbs in the context of antonyms.

Open Access
In: Cognitive Semantics
Author:

Abstract

This study provides an analysis of suprasegmental units in English within the framework of Cognitive Phonology, including stress, intonation and juncture. In this regard, two aspects are explained. The first is integration: the way the subparts are combined to form a composite structure. This is done by means of pivotal mechanisms, where the integration of segmentals and suprasegmentals are subject to correspondence, determinacy, elaboration and constituency. The second is interpretation: the way the meaning of the resulting composite structure is explained. This is done by means of construal, where the use of a suprasegmental unit is the outcome of the specific construal the speaker chooses to describe a situation. The aim is to show, through examples, that the use of a suprasegmental unit is a manifestation of a communicative intention. The implication is that suprasegmental units are essential; they are cognitive operations carried out on the baseline, and so conveyors of meaning. As an aspect of language, suprasegmental units can be described as an instance of B/E organization, where a word, phrase or sentence represents the baseline, while the suprasegmenal unit represents the elaboration.

In: Cognitive Semantics