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This collection of essays explores processes of innovation in Greco-Roman technology and science. It uses the concept of ‘anchoring’ to investigate the microhistories of technological and scientific practices and ideas. The volume combines broad, theoretical essays with more targeted case studies of individual inventions and innovations. In doing so, it moves beyond the emphasis on achievement that has traditionally characterized modern scholarship on ancient technology and science. Instead, the chapters of this volume analyse the manifold ways in which new technologies and ideas were anchored in what was already known and familiar, and highlight how, once familiar, technologies and ideas could themselves become anchoring points for inventions and innovations.
2. Jhd. v. Chr. - 3. Jhd. n. Chr.
Die vorliegende Monographie entwirft eine literaturgeschichtliche Gesamtdarstellung des römischen Antiquarianismus vom 2. Jahrhundert v. Chr. bis zum 3. Jahrhundert n. Chr. Ausgangspunkt ist die begrifflich-konzeptuelle Neuprofilierung des Phänomens. Dieses wird als ein epistemologisches Modell gegenwartsbezogener Vergangenheitsanalyse aufgefasst, die mit den Denkfiguren der Etymologie, Aitiologie und Genealogie operiert, um die hinter der erfahrbaren Lebenswelt liegenden Kausalitäten freizulegen. Anhand der überlieferten Fragmente und Testimonien wird die Entwicklung der heute verlorenen antiquarischen Fachliteratur Roms in ihren unterschiedlichen medialen Formaten, Darstellungsformen und Wirkungskontexten nachgezeichnet.
This volume provides an account of Roman antiquarianism from the 2nd century BC to the 3rd century AD, reconstructing its textual manifestations and analysing the mechanisms of transmission. It is based on a new conceptualisation of antiquarianism as an epistemological mode of understanding the present by uncovering its origins in the past. Etymology, aitiology and genealogy were the tools used to explore the causalities that underpin the perceptible world. Antiquarianism, represented by a wide range of texts and genres throughout antiquity, is traced as an autonomous branch of literature. Fragments and testimonies are used to identify a lost corpus of treatises, lexica and handbooks that formed the scholarly basis of Augustan poets, historiographers and imperial litterateurs.    
The aim of this volume is to re-evaluate some of the temporal, intermedial and geographical boundaries built around the long-established discipline, the study of incunabula.
This volume starts by setting out the past and future landscapes of incunabula studies, looking particularly at copy-specific features. The following chapters use research on specific editions or subjects in order to engage with the two key themes: production and provenance of early books.
By examining a wide range of copy-specific aspects of individual books, the volume showcases how printed books were produced in the fifteenth century and subsequently used and transformed by readers and owners during their long journeys till they fell into their current owners’ hands.
Volume Editor:
The late Byzantine period (thirteenth to fifteenth centuries) was marked by both cultural fecundity and political fragmentation, resulting in an astonishingly multifaceted literary output. This book addresses the poetry of the empire’s final quarter-millennium from a broad perspective, bringing together studies on texts originating in places from Crete to Constantinople and from court to school, treating topics from humanist antiquarianism to pious self-help, and written in styles from the vernacular to Homeric language. It thus offers a reference work to a much-neglected but rich textual material that is as varied as it was potent in the sociocultural contexts of its times.
Contributors are Theodora Antonopoulou, Marina Bazzani, Julián Bértola, Martin Hinterberger, Krystina Kubina, Marc D. Lauxtermann, Florin Leonte, Ugo Mondini, Brendan Osswald, Giulia M. Paoletti, Cosimo Paravano, Daniil Pleshak, Alberto Ravani, and Federica Scognamiglio.

Abstract

This chapter offers a study of the Chapters in Four Ways, a still unedited and largely overlooked fourteenth-century collection of a hundred moral chapters in three different types of meter and in prose: each chapter has three quatrains (hexameters, iambs, and paired octosyllables) and three prose texts, all of which are surrounded by scholia. By providing a critical edition and translation of chapter 37, ‘On Women’, along with a commentary, this paper investigates the relationship between the prose and poetry sections of the collection, their nature, structure, and intended audience.

In: Poetry in Late Byzantium
Author:

Abstract

The Chronicle of the Tocco is generally considered as a “chronicle”. However, this characterization raises many problems, while a structural and thematic analysis shows that the text presents more analogies with the literary genre known as biographie chevaleresque (chivalric biography), a Late Medieval evolution of the chanson de geste which was then widespread in France, which was made possible thanks to the widespread diffusion of French culture in Latin Greece. The so-called Chronicle of the Tocco should therefore better be called the Life of Carlo Tocco. The poem also shows analogies with later works from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries in Greek.

In: Poetry in Late Byzantium
Newly edited with a transcription faithful to the original manuscript and provided with an Introduction
This book offers a new edition of one of the most important art historical sources on Italian art. Written not long before Vasari's famous Lives (1550), this source provides an overview of art from Cimabue to Michelangelo. Moreover, the author's ambition was to provide a sketch of the art of classical antiquity. First published in the late nineteenth century, the Codex has led to numerous questions, the main one being: who was its author? We believe we have found the answer to this question, which led us to come up with a new edition of the Codex.
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Abstract

This chapter deals with two sequences of epitaphs written after the death of Theodore Gaza (†1475) as preserved in a bifolium currently in MS Vienna, ÖNB, codex 3198 and MS Florence, BNC, Magliabechianus VII, 1195, ff. 117v–118r. After describing the relevant sections of these manuscripts where the sequences are situated (§1), the chapter then examines the collection’s origin and development (§2). Thanks to contextualisation within other numerous early-modern literary collections for notable deceased (§3) and some physical features of the Viennese bifolium, a solution to the riddle is proposed, (§4) along with a promotor for the collection, Demetrios Chalkondyles.

In: Poetry in Late Byzantium
Author:

Abstract

Poems in the Late Byzantine period (thirteenth to fifteenth centuries) were marvelously multifaceted in their contexts of production, functions, genres, subjects, forms, and language registers. For the purposes of this book, poetry is defined in a purely formal way as “everything in verse”, thus encompassing both shorter texts, such as epigrams and monodies, and long verse narratives (overall c.170,000 verses). The temporal framework, which might seem merely a politically-inspired convenience, is in fact broadly valid, as the calamities of the Fourth Crusade and the Ottoman conquest which bookend this period led not only to a break of some decades in poetry production, in the early thirteenth and the mid-fifteenth centuries respectively, but also influenced the forms and functions of the poems. Spatially, the centers of poetry production were far apart from each other and situated in various political contexts, including the Salento, Nicaea, Epirus, Trebizond, Crete, Cyprus, Thessaloniki, the Peloponnese, and humanist Italym as well as, of course, in Constantinople. By mapping this rich and multifarious literary landscape, this first chapter offers the framework for the following case studies gathered in this volume.

In: Poetry in Late Byzantium

Abstract

This chapter focuses on four Byzantine orthographical canons attributed in late Greek manuscripts to Maximos Mazaris, Galaktion, or Theodoros Ptochoprodromos. Although their existence has been noted in scholarly literature, three of these “parahymnographical” didactic works remain unpublished and virtually unknown. In order to shed light on the four canons and the tradition they represent, the paper presents their formal features and deals with their grammatical (orthographical) content and relationship to each other. Examining the extent of their manuscript tradition reveals their significant popularity as teaching materials in post-Byzantine times. The authorial attributions of the canons are discussed in depth. Some related hymnographical works is also taken into consideration.

In: Poetry in Late Byzantium