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In: Athanasius Raczyński (1788–1874). Aristocrat, Diplomat, and Patron of the Arts
In: Spaces of Connoisseurship
In: Foreign Currency Volatility and the Market for French Modernist Art

Abstract

The paper takes up the issue of international trade in art from the Global South perspective. Leaving on the margin the most important countries for the matter in question, i.e. the United States of America, some European countries (Great Britain, France, Germany, Switzerland) and China, attention is focused on the emerging economies of the southern hemisphere: South America, Africa, India, and South-Eastern Asia. The aim of the paper is to identify the value, directions, and indicators of international art trade in Global South countries. The analysis is based on the UN Comtrade database and International Trade Center (ITC) statistics. The export and import of products classified as commodity group 97 (works of art, collectors’ pieces) and antiques are analyzed.

An analysis of value of the international art trade is presented. Special attention is given to trade balance indicators (negative or positive). Based on the data gathered, the directions of international art trade are identified in the selected Global South countries. Furthermore, the concentration of exporting countries and the average distance between them and their destination countries is presented; the same is done for importing countries. The measure of concentration is based on the Herfindahl index (also known as Herfindahl–Hirschman Index, HHI, or sometimes HHI-score). The source of the data for the geographical distance between two countries is CEPII (Centre d’Etudes Prospectives et d’Informations Internationales) data. The paper also has a cognitive and empirical character. The analysis of data enables to achieve new perspectives that can be observed in the current art trade seen from the Global South. Advanced visualizations of the geographical structure of the international art trade in the discussed regions are also presented in the article.

In: The Art Market and the Global South

Abstract

In Chapter 2 (Anonymity and Flemish Painting), the issue of anonymity in Early Flemish art is discussed from an historical perspective (context of production, development of connoisseurship, development of technical art history). Four aspects of this output, which are directly linked to the problems of anonymity, provide the justification for devoting an entire study to it: i) the relative abundance of pictures that were geared towards the market; ii) the duality between concepts of identity and anonymity; iii) names subject to changing preferences; and iv) complex attributionism.

In: Anonymous Art at Auction
In: Athanasius Raczyński (1788–1874). Aristocrat, Diplomat, and Patron of the Arts
In: Athanasius Raczyński (1788–1874). Aristocrat, Diplomat, and Patron of the Arts

Abstract

American museums in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries prominently displayed collections of modern plaster casts, particularly of classical and Renaissance sculpture, but modern copies of historical paintings were less frequently seen in public institutions. An exception to this may be found in the Western Gallery of Art, a museum of modern copies of Old Master paintings founded in 1897 in Kansas City, Missouri by local newspaper editor William Rockhill Nelson. Nelson particularly admired Italian art, especially from the classical and Renaissance periods, and sought to educate the public on its intellectual, moral and spiritual benefits by founding an art museum in Kansas City. He knew, however, that masterpieces akin to those he admired in the museums of Florence and Rome were rarely available on the art market of the time, and those that did come up for sale were beyond his financial ability to purchase. He therefore set out to assemble a museum of what was, to Nelson, the next best thing - copies of famous Italian paintings and sculpture. Nelson visited the Pisani Gallery in Florence in 1896 and acquired most of his new copy collection from there. Pisani Gallery, founded by Luigi Pisani in the 1870s, sold hand-painted copies of the most famous paintings housed in European museums, reproduced by contemporary Florentine artists working directly for Pisani and sold in replica frames. As the first art museum in Kansas City, the Western Gallery of Art and its Pisani Gallery copies became a beloved institution and cultural stalwart for the city’s residents. Upon the opening of the new Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art in 1933, however, the Western Gallery’s copies created confusion among the public, who were unable to discern between them and the new museum’s exceptional collection of original masterpieces, and the copies were permanently uninstalled in 1943. For the time it was on display, however, this collection of modern copies with a Florentine provenance helped shape the Kansas City public’s understanding and appreciation of art, and became the forerunner of The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art.

In: Italy for Sale