Browse results

In: A Sceptical Theory of Scientific Inquiry: Problems and Their Progress
In: Enthymemes and Topoi in Dialogue
In: Concept and Judgment in Brentano's Logic Lectures

Abstract

Paradoxes hold an important place in philosophy – they force us to verify our beliefs and inspire us to search for new solutions. In the paper I will indicate certain essential characteristics of paradoxes and show how they relate to fundamental ontological and epistemological problems – for example, the relationship between intuitive and theoretical descriptions of a given subject.

In: Philosophical Approaches to the Foundations of Logic and Mathematics

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to sketch out three methods of dealing with philosophical questions used by members of the Lvov-Warsaw School. These methods are: analysis of concepts, paraphrase of theses, and axiomatization of theories. In the first part of the paper, we provide a rudimentary analysis of the concept of method. We point to the fact that in order to characterize a certain research method, one has to indicate the aim of applying it, list its stages, and reconstruct its underlying conceptual scheme. In the second part of the paper, we describe analysis, paraphrase and axiomatization in terms of aims, steps, and conceptual tools. We also present some examples of applications of these methods in works by Kazimierz Twardowski, Jan Łukasiewicz, Tadeusz Kotarbiński, Tadeusz Czeżowski, and Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz.

In: Formal and Informal Methods in Philosophy

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to sketch out three methods of dealing with philosophical questions used by members of the Lvov-Warsaw School. These methods are: analysis of concepts, paraphrase of theses, and axiomatization of theories. In the first part of the paper, we provide a rudimentary analysis of the concept of method. We point to the fact that in order to characterize a certain research method, one has to indicate the aim of applying it, list its stages, and reconstruct its underlying conceptual scheme. In the second part of the paper, we describe analysis, paraphrase and axiomatization in terms of aims, steps, and conceptual tools. We also present some examples of applications of these methods in works by Kazimierz Twardowski, Jan Łukasiewicz, Tadeusz Kotarbiński, Tadeusz Czeżowski, and Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz.

In: Formal and Informal Methods in Philosophy
In: Fregesche Variationen
Author: Jan Woleński

Abstract

This paper defends moderate aposteriorism in the philosophy of logic. Yet logic is conceived as a set of tautologies, that is, truths in all models (possible worlds). Aposteriorism assumes genetic empiricism, that is, the view that every piece of knowledge is rooted in experience. Since according to present trends in the philosophy of logic, experience cannot generate universal truths, empiricism (aposteriorism) cannot explain the nature of logic. The paper shows that evolutionary biology and genetics provide data for conceiving logic as rooted in the properties of DNA.

In: Philosophical Approaches to the Foundations of Logic and Mathematics

Abstract

In this paper we try to clarify the meaning of “logical animals” by examining if dogs can also be considered logical animals. An upside question of “Are dogs logical animals?” is: “Are human beings the only rational animals?”. It is one thing to claim that human beings are logical animals, but another thing is to super claim that human beings are the only logical animals. There are also some related questions, if we consider the semantic cloud surrounding logical, in particular: “Are dogs intelligent?”. A basis for analysis is the so-called forking argument.

In: Philosophical Approaches to the Foundations of Logic and Mathematics