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Abstract

Due to labour shortages in key areas, early-modern Spain frequently employed foreigners to provide missionary and military manpower, administrative personnel, and technical expertise. Like their Flemish, English, and French contemporaries, Irish Catholics served Spain as priests, soldiers, bureaucrats, and operatives. The Irish colleges functioned as elements of these service networks, although this aspect of their activity remains relatively obscure. In part, this is because the colleges and their students are usually viewed in the context either of Spain’s international Catholic commitments and its geopolitical strategy or from the vantage of the Irish mission. Yet service to Spain and to the Spanish monarchy was also an important function of the collegial network and one that was not at odds with but rather complementary to its better known mission to the Irish church. Spanish support of the colleges, in fact, appears to have been at least tacitly predicated on Irish readiness to serve in the diverse religious missions of the Habsburg and Bourbon monarchies. Over time, this arrangement adapted to Spain’s changing needs and to the exigencies of the Irish mission. By the end of the eighteenth century, however, this largely complementary arrangement began to come under strain as Irish bishops sought more control over the formation and placement of clerical students trained overseas.


In: Forming Catholic Communities
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Abstract

It is argued in this essay that the Gaelic print initiative at the Irish Franciscan college at Louvain was a critical factor in the construction and articulation of a seamless Gaelic Irish and Catholic identity in the early decades of the seventeenth century. In contrast, the publication of a Protestant Gaelic translation of the New Testament in Dublin in 1602 was considerably less successful in its putative cultural legitimation of the established church’s status and role in Gaelic Ireland. It is suggested that a former Gaelic praise poet and Franciscan friar at Louvain, Bonaventura Ó hEódhusa, was especially influential in the deployment of cultural tradition and print technology to promulgate a potent amalgam of faith and cultural identity whose ideological resonances have endured over ensuing centuries.


In: Forming Catholic Communities
Chapter 10 100 Words Exactly

Abstract

The capacity to write sits at the heart of academic work and is crucial to achieving success. For higher degree research students, academic writing calls for various skills, competencies and knowledges, and is experienced as a process of participating and becoming adept in the textual and discursive practices of specific disciplinary cultures. In this chapter, we share our collective experience of experimenting with the genre of ‘drabbles’ as a way to share the theoretical story of our thesis and academic work, and to gesture towards the ways in which higher degree research and writing might become a rebellious pedagogic and performative praxis. Drabbles are short works of fiction of exactly 100 words which explicitly aim to tell a story in a way that is short, sharp and snappy. The drabbles we share here were written while away on a week-long DRAW (Departing Radically in Academic Writing) writing retreat. In 100 words we departed radically from academic writing, to show not tell our thesis stories and our delight and love for words that world. The chapter weaves these together along with our thinking and wondering about our work as a way to, through and for rebellion in thesis and academic writing more broadly.

In: Doing Rebellious Research
Chapter 7 100 Years of Dewey in China, 1919–1921

Abstract

This paper uses the centenary of Dewey’ two years in China as an opportunity to reassess John Dewey’s views on China, based mainly on his Letters and his Lectures in Social and Political Philosophy, 1919–21 given on invitation at the University of Peking. In particular, the paper makes some criticisms of Dewey’s pragmatism (his lack of contextualism in not mentioning the significance of the May 4th Movement) and raises the question of the relationship of his thought with Chinese Marxism. The essay is given a critical reading by three scholars Jessica Ching-Sze Wang, Kang Zhao, and Zhang Huajun, all Dewey scholars.

In: John Dewey and Chinese Education
Author:

Abstract

The closure of the Irish, English, and Scots colleges in France in the early 1790s disrupted ancien régime patterns of student mobility from Britain and Ireland to the Continent and encouraged the development of alternative educational provision for Catholics at home. As this essay shows, however, Irish, English, and Scottish Catholics regained access to the infrastructure and investments created over earlier centuries. Under the Empire, they were united into the ‘British Establishments’ which re-opened the Irish college in Paris in 1805. This article addresses the conflict which ensued during the Restoration period as competing interests in France, Britain, and Ireland struggled for control of what remained of the colleges and their finances. The essay argues that Paul Long, a Dublin priest sent to Paris by the Irish bishops in 1814, played a key role in asserting their claims over the Irish college. The essay traces the means by which Irish, English, and Scottish Catholic interests assumed control of infrastructure (at least in the Irish case) and finances during the Restoration period by drawing on a wealth of new archival material.


In: Forming Catholic Communities
Author:

Abstract

From 1818 onwards, the Scottish Mission sent a large number of seminarians to complete their studies not in dedicated Scots colleges on the Continent, but in various non-Scottish establishments on French soil. There were certain benefits in training Scots missionary priests in France, with its offer of cosmopolitanism and a high-quality Sulpician education. However, France also had a reputation for exposing Scottish seminarians to unwelcome ideas. This essay investigates aspects of the study experience of France-trained Scottish seminarians, pursuing their studies in the politically tumultuous nineteenth century immersed in a foreign national and ecclesiastical culture. By looking at correspondence from the Scottish Catholic Archives as well as priestly obituaries, it investigates the potential effects of France-based study with its distinctive features, namely Sulpician ideals of priesthood and French Gallicanism. The essay will discuss how far the seminary walls were penetrated by political ideas from the surrounding society and ask what the trouble with France was by addressing the peculiarities of the experience and attempting to establish whether some unwanted ideas might have accompanied students back to Scotland. 


In: Forming Catholic Communities

Abstract

The French Third Republic transformed numerous aspects of civil and religious life throughout France. Perhaps most fundamental was the relationship between church and state, which was changed in various ways, notably in the areas of education and bureaucracy. In many ways, the experience of the Irish college in Paris, which was broadly reflective of France and French society during this period of war, social unrest, and national transformation, provides a valuable insight into the nature and extent of these changes. Between 1870 and 1918, the college, a small seminary situated within the Latin Quarter of the fifth arrondissement, underwent enforced modernisation, a process complicated by friction between college administrators and Irish bishops over appointments, finances, and student admission. Particularly significant was the administrative reformation of the institution in the wake of the foundation of the Third Republic. 
A shift in management from one man, a French representative appointed by the Archbishop of Paris, to the Bureau gratuit, a collective of French interior managers and ecclesiastics, allowed the college to survive as a distinct Irish institution. The Great War also impacted the Irish college. With its students absent between 1914 and 1918, it served as a refuge for displaced nuns and local Parisians. It fell within range of German artillery during the 1918 spring offensive, but escaped total destruction, as it had in 1871. This chapter details the administrative, financial, educational and, at times, military aspects of the Irish college, Paris, during this turbulent and formative period.


In: Forming Catholic Communities
In: Free Women (Mujeres Libres)

Abstract

Given the persecution of their members and the destruction of their houses during the Elizabethan conquest, the Irish Franciscans had little option but to found colleges on the Continent to ensure the survival of the province. The recently founded Capuchin order, on the other hand, had to found its Irish mission on the Continent, before ever gaining a foothold in Ireland. Insomuch as the Capuchins were a reform movement that had broken away from the Franciscans, both orders viewed one another with suspicion. Furthermore, the Capuchin higher authorities were initially reluctant to initiate a mission in a country where essential external elements of the reform, such as wearing the habit and the non-use of money, could not be practised. Moreover, Francis Nugent, founder of the Irish Capuchins, was a committed Francophile, something that set him at loggerheads with the Irish Franciscans and their philo-hispanic tendencies. The continental colleges of both the Irish Franciscans and the Irish Capuchins succeeded admirably in their primary aim of training young religious for the Irish mission. It should not be forgotten, however, that this role was played out against a background both of the mutual suspicion between the two orders, and the rivalry between France and Spain as both states vied with the other to become the leading Catholic power in Europe.


In: Forming Catholic Communities
In: Neoliberalizing Educational Reform