The introduction to this special issue describes the emergence of the virtue ethics approach within the study of Confucian virtues in recent decades. It will first examine scholarly contributions to the discussion of Confucian virtue ethics and then raises questions concerning whether or not de 德 in early Confucian texts is identical with arête or virtue. It will then investigate the meaning and implication of de in Confucian contexts and make an argument for a new type of Confucian de ethics. It will finally come to the project on de and virtue ethics in early Confucian texts and define its purpose and boundaries.
Medical texts especially of the Huangdi neijing 黃帝內經 tradition provide an important counterpoint to philosophical debates about the relation of body and mind in early China and in particular to the understanding of the “mind” (xin 心), since medical texts must address the role of the xin-heart as one of the visceral systems. This paper surveys accounts of both “mind” and “spirit” (shen 神) in the Huangdi neijing and proposes a view of a person in which cognitive and affective faculties are decentralized and corporeal, rather than being centered in the mind.
Commonly referred to in Chinese by the term jinglu, scriptural catalogs constitute a specific sort of Sinitic bibliographical literature that deals primarily with texts accepted in East Asian Buddhist circles as authoritative in matters of religion. The role that these catalogs played in the history of the Chinese Buddhist canon has become the subject of various important studies, but still oft-neglected are the functional places that such texts filled in the sphere of Buddhist devotional practice. To try to redress the balance, this essay brings into focus a small but significant group of Southern Song (1127-1279) Buddhist monuments in the Sichuan basin. Not only do these monuments allow us a rare glimpse into the devotional uses and symbolic functions of scriptural catalogs, but they offer a vantage point from which to view at least a part of what premodern Buddhists in the Sichuan basin actually believed and practiced.
This article examines the law of officials during the Qing dynasty (1644-1912), focusing on the body of statutes, substatutes, and regulations pertaining to the organization and operations of the imperial Chinese bureaucracy. The general objective of the article is to draw attention to the law of officials and its significance within the Qing legal system. A more specific goal is to examine how official wrongdoing was defined, differentiated, and dealt with in Qing law, highlighting the crucial distinction between the two main categories of official wrongdoing: “public wrongdoing” (gongzui 公罪) and “private wrongdoing” (sizui 私罪). Part I analyzes the legal distinction between public and private wrongdoing; Part II examines the historical antecedents of the public-private distinction, as expressed in the philosophical writings and the codified law of earlier dynasties; and Part III analyzes the substantive and procedural consequences of the public-private distinction on Qing officials.
This article studies the relationship between colophons for, and the content of, Dunhuang manuscripts of three indigenous Chinese Buddhist scriptures: the Jiu zhuzhongsheng kunan jing, the Xin pusa jing, and the Quanshan jing. I find that the aspirations for copying these scriptures and the ways of using them are mostly consistent with their content. The patrons or users of these scriptures seem to have largely understood their content. Also, the similarities in the content, and the length of the Jiu zhuzhongsheng kunan jing and the Xin pusa jing should be two factors that account for why these scriptures were frequently copied as one set. Concerns for one’s own family and the relevant instructions in the texts may have led patrons to prefer to copy the Xin pusa jing twice, but the other two scriptures only once as a single scribal act.