The last fifteen years witnessed a remarkable revitalization in the field of Second International historiography. This renewed literature put forward different approaches and perspectives, as the interest for the history of social democracy draws on academic as well as political considerations. Whereas an important trend of this revitalization came from studies that focused on social and cultural aspects, this review explores two recent volumes published by North American authors that propose a different, and explicitly political, approach towards the history of social democracy in the years of the Second International.
Critiques of the way workforces were managed in capitalist market economies throughout the 20th century exist but are not necessarily relevant to emergent industries. In the digital age, new economic sectors have proliferated. These are often associated with distinctive labor management practices. A case in point is the telecommunications retail sector—shopping mall outlets where salespeople sell smartphones and associated contracts. In such outlets, it is difficult for consumers to accurately assess their needs and make informed choices, a phenomenon sometime described as confusopoly. This study provides evidence that confusopoly not only characterizes the relationship between customers and firms in the retail telecommunications industry but is also a construct that aptly applies to the employment relationship existing between vendors and their employer. Five themes supporting this conclusion are presented which draw on the results obtained from two focus-groups conducted with Canadian telco vendors in the summer of 2020.
This paper is delivered from a conceptual theoretical review of grey literature: identifying key concepts and pragmatic policy interventions, which are required to address various aspects of the digital workforce. The main objective and purpose of this study is to analyze then articulate how technological panopticism, digital surveillance has changed the world of work. The study alerts us to the significant changes in work relations, which have been imposed by the digital age. At a nascent level society is asked to consider; how prepared are we to address the effects of technological panopticism on the mental (and physical) wellbeing of digital workers. On a nuanced basis the study fulfils another societal role: acting to introduce consideration of the digital surveillance aspects of how interaction with artificial intelligence and/or the internet of things could develop in the 2020s.
This article describes and analyzes the labor process of Rappi, one of the main ordering and delivery platforms (odp) in Latin America. An exploratory qualitative case study was carried out and the results are based on the content analysis of 20 semi-structured interviews to platform workers as well as ethnographic work done in 2019–2020 in Santiago de Chile. This article contributes to, first, describe and analyze labor processes organized by an odp whose property and operation is managed in the Global South; second, it enables to explore the role played by Rappi within the Chilean retail production network; third, it connects diverse labor processes organized by odp s further on the ‘pick-up and deliver’ orders task; finally, it analyzes different control mechanisms executed by Rappi beyond algorithmic control, together with individual and collective resistance practices adopted by shoppers and riders.
Rapid advances in technology brought dramatic changes into the labour market, regarding precarious, flexible and informal work. The gig economy has enabled new forms of labour exploitation, social exclusion, intermittent and vulnerable professional trajectories. Not having fully recovered from the Great Recession, the Portuguese society is crossing a Covid-19 global pandemic which has accelerated the digitalisation and platformisation of work fecting not only the value chains, but the labour market dynamics in a heterogenous way. Between 2019 and 2020, 53 in-depth interviews were conducted with precarious workers in Portugal, comprising a focus on 15 life trajectories from digital platform workers. Through their voices, it was concluded that job insecurity is deeply intertwined with the global supply chain management operated by algorithmic control. Most of platform companies threaten established employment relationships, atomising workers who live in the present time without any future aspirations.
This paper analyzes the dynamics that led to the failure of the Moroccan protest “February 20” movement. It explains how the failure is due to its internal ideological divergences and external elements. At the internal level, the “February 20” missed an excellent opportunity to constitute itself as a historical bloc as recommended by the Moroccan philosopher Mohamed Abed Al-Jabri. Largely polarized between leftist ideology and the Islamist movement. The internal ideological quarrels of the movement contributed to its subsequent failure. At the external level, faced with the central Moroccan power, the “Makhzen”, leading the political game, as well as the Machiavellianism of Moroccan political actors, the “February 20” movement found itself in the rejected category. He was abandoned by those who were themselves the defenders of his own ideas, before changing sides and approaching the political power and became a blessed category.
On January 25, 2011, a spontaneous mobilization of masses of Egyptian folks congregated in Tahrir Square calling for change in Egypt. ‘Bread, freedom and social justice’ is what Egyptian demonstrators chanted throughout their encampment in the Midan. Shortly after Tahrir Square had turned into a community of protestors congregating and setting up camp day and night in the large plaza, random protestors and performers started devising means of entertainment imbued with political satire with which to engage and incite the crowds. Songs and dances as well as lengthy dramatic monologues, verbatim testimonies, poetry recitations and various styles of storytelling emerged. Those performative acts of protest are similar in nature to renowned Egyptian dramatist Yusuf Idris’s recounting of the Egyptian village al-samir performance tradition, which was also performative and unruly in nature. This interdisciplinary study compares that indigenous dramatic art form, al-samir, with the revolutionary performatives of protest that sprang up extemporaneously in the Midan during the Egyptian revolution in 2011. The paper raises questions about the nature of protest and community formation, democracy, performativity and focuses only on the first 18 days of the January uprising, that specific historical moment only and its transformative effect on theatrical performances, performers and protestors at the time. The paper proposes that the Tahrir performatives of protest were an ephemeral phenomenon that appeared as embodiments and celebrations of political freedom in a specific time and place, and they ended when the call for democracy and the euphoria of the uprising of 2011 gradually faded away.