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In: Throwing the Dice of History with Marx
In: Throwing the Dice of History with Marx
In: Throwing the Dice of History with Marx
In: Throwing the Dice of History with Marx
In: Throwing the Dice of History with Marx
In: Throwing the Dice of History with Marx
In: Throwing the Dice of History with Marx
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Abstracto

Dephonologization of the opposition between the lateral palatal /ʎ/ and the approximant non-lateral palatal /j/, merging into one single phoneme, /j/, is known as yeísmo. This phenomenon has been long identified and much studied in Spanish varieties, both in Spain and in America. (cf. Gómez & Molina 2013). This chapter examines the use of voiced palatals in the spontaneous speech of monolingual speakers from the Iquitos community (Loreto, Peru); these include speakers who have attained a higher education and speakers with low levels of literacy. The data examined show that, contrary to what was proposed by Ramírez (2003) and later restated by Marticorena (2010), there is no clear rephonologization of the laterals in this region. This chapter also discussed Escobar’s hypothesis (1981) that palatals are allophones of a single phoneme. However, the outcome of this chapter supports the claims by Escobar (1978) and Caravedo (1995, 2013), which indicate that Amazonian yeísmo is still in a process of ongoing change.

In: Spanish Diversity in the Amazon
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Abstract

This study examines the palatal lateral /ʎ/ in Spanish as produced by Kichwa-Spanish bilinguals in the Ecuadorian Amazon. While there is a general trend in Spanish towards loss of the etymological /ʎ/-/ʝ/ contrast, maintenance is reported for some varieties, including those in contact with languages with the phoneme in their native inventory. However, support through contact may also produce results not found in non-contact varieties, such as allophonic variation of /ʎ/ to [l] before the high front vowel [i], as in Kichwa. To examine this possibility, recordings of both male and female speakers were made and analyzed acoustically according to three types of measures: consonant duration, formant height (F2), and C/V intensity ratio as a measure of consonant constriction. From these analyses, we find that while there is maintenance of /ʎ/, both groups show cases of depalatalization to [l], while females show some tendencies towards delateralization to [ʝ] (i.e., yeísmo). A qualitative examination of /ʎ l ʝ/ is also given in Kichwa as an initial point of comparison. This research demonstrates the need for more acoustic work to observe changes in the sound inventory in varieties of Spanish, and the allophonic variation that may result from language contact.

In: Spanish Diversity in the Amazon

Abstract

Studies attempting to understand the particularity of Peruvian Amazonian Spanish emphasize the widespread presence of Quechua loanwords as one of its most characteristic features. This is easy to confirm by checking the available regional dictionaries, for instance, Tovar (1966), Castonguay (1990) or Chirif (2017), where we find hundreds of entries with a Quechua etymology. This paper offers the first systematic study of the phonological, morphological and dialectal characteristics of the Quechua loanwords attested in Peruvian Amazonian Spanish. Although many of the features attested in the Quechua loanwords of Peruvian Amazonian Spanish are found throughout the whole Quechua language family, others do suggest a specific dialectal affiliation and are crucial for this study. One of the most significant discoveries of this paper is that the Quechua loanwords attested in Peruvian Andean Spanish reveal that they do not come from a single Quechua dialect, as has been traditionally assumed. Although the phonetic-phonological features point towards Amazonian Quechua, the morphological and lexical features described in this paper suggest a significant dialectal diversity that has not been previously proposed in the literature.

In: Spanish Diversity in the Amazon