When architects write they often recall memories of places from their childhood, from travels, from site visits. They remark on how these memories shaped their identity and extended their language of architecture. This chapter explores how architects responded to a sense of place; wrote down their memories, drew inspiration from landscapes, attached emotion to materials and objects. It does so through the lens of the writings of the Portuguese architect Alvaro Siza (1933–), the Swiss architect Peter Zumthor (1941–), and the British architects Alison and Peter Smithson (1928–1993; and 1923–2003).
I argue in this article that, firstly, a selected case of Nordic painters: Anna Tuori (FI, 1976), Petri Ala-Maunus (FI, 1970) and John Kørner (DK, 1967), problematise in their twenty-first-century paintings the historically utopian topoi of landscapes, such as the paradise and Arcadia. This is done by repeating the topoi’s landscape iconography. Secondly, the paintings renew this iconography by mixing it with dystopian moods and elements, such as the emotive colour moods and visual signs from the contemporary living world. For example, painters use ironically intertextual references to various clichéd meanings and forms of consumption, that have been attached to the utopian landscape types, such as, the leisure industries’ marketing imagery. The utopian Arcadian, pastoral or sublime landscape types are translated in these paintings into simulacra of imagined reality (), and turned into mere aesthetic triggers, that formally compose the painting. Often abstract marks or patches and colour moods contrast the presented utopian landscape views, and thus dialectically confuse or distance the spectator from the utopian scene. Thirdly, the landscape paintings formulate a hermeneutical understanding of the global world and exemplify philosopher concept of a wishful landscape. I claim that what makes these paintings, in a contradictory way, ecocriticism, is that they contemplate nature aesthetically and emotionally. Through an iconographical-intellectual historical analysis I define the aporic and ecocritical role that these painted utopian–dystopian landscapes take. I build my interpretation and analyse the ideas of utopian landscapes, from a Marxist perspective on landscape art, in the light of the research by human geographer , literary scholar , philosopher Ernst Bloch (1885–1977; ) and cultural theorist . The themes pointed out by and ): the individual perspective, the emotional understanding of the world or self, both in European colonialist and romantic thought, and ‘the landscape way of seeing’ are visible in the discussed paintings.
Koli is perhaps the best known natural landscape in Finland. In this article, we take a new perspective on geographic history and use the pragmatist conception of ecosystem services (ES) as a tool to study the birth and development process of a national landscape. ES are defined as ecosystem functions that are valuable for human wellbeing and livelihood, both on a personal and community level. We identify key cultural ES from different eras of time, discuss what the benefit streams in each of them are, and hypothesize how and why these benefit streams become entangled and are stabilized as constituents of the modern landscape of Koli. Our analysis is based on learned studies, memoirs, and personal experience. In conclusion, we will provide a novel way of understanding the role of cultural ES as a constituent of, and in, constituting a national landscape. The genealogical approach to Koli enables us to create a three-partite hypothesis how habits, customs, and ecosystem features intertwine as cultural ES and provide emotional inspirations, resilience and social cohesion to individuals and communities.
People make cities to fit for living by assembling urban character with meaningful entities of nature. This means that people rework their emotions as a result of mobility and shifting perspectives. Thus, emotions can be approached in terms of movement or motion as kinds of trajectories of force. These lines form a meshwork become essential components of being alive. The current paper aims to understand these kinds of affective trajectories that are generated and experienced along dacha allotment gardens in Narva, Estonia, by asking two questions: how plural mobility co-exists with meaningful human-nature interactions as essential part of forming landscapes? How these emotional interactions contribute to caretaking of landscapes and evolvement of peri-urbanity? The context of Narva as a border city on the eastern periphery of European Union provides several dimensions to the thematic focus as well. The empirical material of the paper is based on an ethnographic study and qualitative interviews. The study results indicate the rural dimension and multiple engagements with nature in wider urbanisation dynamics of Narva area. The plural mobility and emotional care motivated and maintained by allotment gardening constitute the dispersed landscapes as a connective tissue of peri-urban features. Landscape histories of the peri-urbanity indicate particular ruptures and reassembles along the state-border regimes. The analysis on peri-urbanisation should take into account the active role of fringes and of countryside ideals.
This chapter examines two ill-fated attempts to introduce penguins to Norway, in 1936 and 1938, and asks why this was considered a good idea at the time. I argue that transplanting penguins could be considered a means of enriching the avian fauna of a specific region that already possessed rich bird life, thus boosting tourism at a time of economic difficulty. Attempts to render the birds a desirable, even natural part of a Norwegian environment drew on both a wider current of nationalistic polar geopolitics and a more specific sense that penguins could improve an already notable avian fauna. I conclude with reflections on why the projects failed, and why the story of the penguins tends to be told in a way that obscures one of the most important actors – the geologist, conservationist, and polar nationalist Adolf Hoel.