The grammar of the village dialects of Ṭuroyo remains poorly described apart from that of Midən, and within the documentation there is a dearth of spontaneous conversations. Consequently, much about Ṭuroyo pragmatics and sociolinguistics in general also remains undescribed. We therefore present two short conversations between three residents of Kfarze in Tur Abdin, concerning a significant event in its recent history, together with a translation and a glossary. In addition to their value as oral histories of the Christian-Kurdish relationship in the region, they reveal significant details about the dialect of Kfarze, including 1) the contraction of triphthongs in ii-y verbs; 2) nouns consistently marked with l- when they express the agent of an ‘ergative’ preterite; and 3) the retention of ‘soft’ (unaspirated) ḳ in Kurmanji loan vocabulary. The presence of the last feature, and of frequent code-switching between Ṭuroyo and Kurmanji in the spontaneous speech of these villagers, attests to the bilingual situation in Kfarze.
The article presents a new edition of the Wolfe Golden Amulet based upon a close examination of new RTI images and its interpretation in light of related Aramaic and Hebrew sources. New readings and translations are presented for many parts of the text.
The Bible contrasts the righteous ones and the sinners, however, biblical thought recognizes that there are righteous who are punished and sinners who prosper. The Psalms of Solomon expand on the difficulty of distinguishing the righteous from the sinner. Firstly, sinners are presented as having benefited from the same blessings as the righteous. Secondly, the righteous are punished as if they were sinners. How then does the Psalms of Solomon differentiate between a righteous “sinner” and a “true” sinner? Ps Sol 13 responds by linking Deut 8:5 and Mal 3:17–18: the righteous are the object of God’s fatherly love. This sonship mixes divine discipline and salvation. This could shed new light on two cruces interpretationum of Ps Sol 13 as well as illuminate the place of the Messiah in this system of thought.
The Alpha Text (AT) and Old Greek (OG) versions of Esther include six chapter-length passages—the “Additions”—not paralleled in the Hebrew Masoretic Text (MT) of Esther. In Addition A, Mordecai sees a dream marked by battle cries, confusion, thunder, earthquake, chaos, a pair of dragons, preparations for war, darkness and gloom, affliction and anguish, and an outcry to God from a frightened nation of righteous people. A small spring emerges from the outcry and turns into a mighty river, which consumes those held in esteem. Addition F offers a limited interpretation of several elements of this dream but leaves much of the dream uninterpreted. This paper offers a fresh perspective on the Addition A dream and its relationship to the plot of both AT- and OG-Esther in light of Artemidorus’s Oneirocritica, a second-century CE handbook of dream interpretation.
The census narrative in 1 Chr 21 draws from the earlier version of the episode preserved in 2 Sam 24, which followed a mythological pattern we encounter in “crisis episodes” deriving from the monarchic era. The Chronicler introduces changes that not only depart from his source material on the literary level; they also break with the older mythological patterns found in earlier crisis episodes. These departures result from the influence of Persian imperial mythology on the Chronicler’s writing, with implications for the Chronicler’s own mythological agenda within his rendition of the census narrative and the chapters surrounding it.
The temple vision of Ezek 40–48 devotes considerable attention to measuring and describing the various gates and entrances of the temple compound. Previous studies have tended to focus on the defensive function of the gates. However, these structures not only bar entry but also facilitate access to the temple under certain ritualized conditions. Offering a close reading of the references to the gates in Ezek 40–48, in which particular roles and activities are associated with specific entrances, this article shows how these architectural features of the temple map a differential system in which social hierarchies are organized according to the level, direction, and timing of access ascribed to different groups and individuals within the temple compound. The article concludes by exploring the significance of the gates for how we understand the literary genre of the temple vision of Ezek 40–48, and in particular its nature as a social utopia.
This article offers a new edition of the LXX Joshua portion of Codex Climaci Rescriptus, an important, though somewhat neglected, Sinaitic Palimpsest. The edition is based on the post-processed multispectral images, produced by Early Manuscripts Electronic Library in cooperation with the Lazarus Project. The new technology has aided in correcting various errors in the editio princeps and uncovering hitherto unseen textual and paratextual elements. Moreover, the results of radiocarbon analysis have been factored into the dating of the fragment, resulting in a new proposal for its date of origin.
This article seeks to clarify the use of “Dibonite” over “Moabite” in the Mesha Stele. To do so, it considers Mesha’s rhetoric, particularly as it pertains to ethnic divisions within the text. It also compares the rhetoric about Moab found in the Mesha Stele with the rhetoric found in the Hebrew Bible.
This study makes the case that within the books of Samuel-Kings as a whole, the book of Samuel presents two nested iterations of paradigmatic history, each of which anticipates the subsequent monarchic history with a distinct thematic focus. The more detailed of these two iterations—the story of Saul’s and David’s reigns in 1 Sam 9– 2 Sam 24—typologically anticipates the subsequent history of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah as narrated in 1 Kgs 12–2 Kgs 25. This paradigmatic “preview” of the fates of Israel and Judah is further condensed in the stories about Eli and Samuel in 1 Sam 1–8, which anticipate elements from 1 Sam 9–2 Sam 24, the book of Kings, and beyond.
Scholars have used the regnal formulae in Kings to reconstruct at least three successive editions at work—a Hezekian version of Kings, a Josianic redaction, and an exilic redaction. Nevertheless, there have only rarely been examinations of how the evaluation of a particular king interacts with the narrative account of that king’s tenure. This paper will examine the ways in which Ahaz’s evaluation is at odds with the narrative depiction of his reign. By analyzing each element of his evaluation, this paper argues that there is evidence that a Josianic or later redactor modified an originally positive evaluation of this king. When taken on its own terms, the narrative account of Ahaz presents a king who rescued his nation, installed a large altar for public use, and removed iconography from the Jerusalem temple. Given this analysis, Ahaz should be understood as a precursor to, rather than a foil of, Hezekiah’s reform program.