The dramatic economic and political developments that followed the 2008 global financial crisis accelerated the rise of what I call “localized globalizations,” led by the United States and China. Their driving forces seem to be the creation of global information/social networks and the proliferation of cheap consumer goods, correspondingly. The US-led version of globalization benefits from the information standards set up by both American and European companies, which target consumers in those high-income nations creating the global upper class. The China-orchestrated version addresses the people in mid- and lower-income nations and provides these nations with China-produced hardware and consumer goods, thus increasing the quality of life and capitalizing on the competitiveness of Chinese mass production. These two versions of globalization are set to compete in the coming decades until a new, more inclusive model emerges, allowing the world once again to reunite economically on a more advanced level. I argue that this is all quite natural, and would not overestimate the negative effects of such economic tensions, since I do not expect that “competing globalizations” will provoke political clashes, unrests, and wars.
This article is devoted to the problem of the transformation of values in the dialogue of civilizations. It is based on a modern approach to the definition of civilizations, with an emphasis on their anthropological nature, and where all features associated with human beings form the basis and center. The authors define the diversity and elements common to all types of civilizations, including the differences among world civilizations, but also their inevitable unity, which is insufficiently realized due to frequent clashes and rivalries. The article also examines the dialogue of civilizations proclaimed by the UN at the beginning of the twenty-first century and the connection in the formulation of this problem with the development of globalization processes. The authors note that globalization leads to the transformation of civilizational values, and to the formation of new universal values that are, in a certain sense, common to all modern civilizations. This refers, first of all, to vital, environmental values, primary civil rights, etc. These values, according to the authors, can form the basis for the formation of a global planetary universal consciousness based on the principle of the equality of the inhabitants of planet Earth, all of whom are equally responsible for its preservation.
Political globalization is a dynamic, nonlinear, global process of increasing and complicating the interdependence between all elements of the global political system. Global political processes are processes taking place in the context of the political aspect of globalization, resulting in the structural transformation of the world system of international relations and the emergence of new global political actors, an increase in the political interconnection and interdependence between them, and the creation of a global political architecture and hierarchy. This article reveals the trends in the development of global political processes, including: the formation of a new structure and architecture for the global world; the emergence of new actors in the global political system; the manifestation of two models of modernization of the countries of the global world (the western [Atlantic] and continental); the growth of instability at the global level; the inefficiency of global governance; the conflict between globalization and the national interests of states; and the growing role of the countries of the “global periphery” in world politics. Global political challenges are potential points of political bifurcation that must be prevented. If ignored, they can develop into global political problems, and if they are not resolved, will evolve into global political risks. This article presents a classification of global political challenges and examines the causes affecting their dynamics. The author describes possible scenarios for the development of the world political system depending on the reaction of society to global political challenges and the consequences of the implementation of each.
Based on the ideas of A. Chumakov and Z. Orudzhev on the objective possibility of the formation of a universal civilization, the present article analyzes the historical stages and main factors of the formation of a global civilization. The first stage begins with the identification of a free person, the emergence of the concept of a citizen, the formation of an equality relationship, and the creation of public law. The second stage is associated with the emergence of Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam, in which the equality of all people before God is preached. The authors substantiate the thesis that the third historical level and principle of civilization is the rule of law, the basic value of democracy and liberalism. This paper substantiates the concept according to which each national-ethnic region makes its own contribution to the formation and evolution of global civilization. This concept is concretized in an analysis of the formation of civilizational values in the works of outstanding Turkic-Muslim poets-thinkers and rulers of Nasimi, Babur and the politics of the Ottoman Empire of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. During this historical period, poets developed and glorified the greatness of man, and a kind and respectful attitude towards man, which are the criteria for the civilization of society. The authors conclude that the process of forming a global civilization is an essential component of universal progress, but, even with objective grounds for its formation, it will not spontaneously form as an integral system. Its formation requires the joint efforts of scientists, politiciansm and civil society institutions.
Globalization is the dominant process of modernity. The economic and socio-political aspects of globalization have been studied in sufficient detail; and yet, its spiritual aspects remain in the shade: questions of the spiritual essence of globalization and problems of the moral and spiritual content of globalization. While it is obvious that all processes taking place in the world have a spiritual component, often the spiritual content of modern phenomena is hidden behind external manifestations. Globalization refers precisely to such phenomena—its spiritual essence is implicit and unclear. But still, it can be reconstructed, as the ideology of globalism is not devoid of a certain spiritual bias. The unifying impact of globalization in relation to the spiritual is manifested in the fact that the bearer of spirituality, a person, is deprived of his deepest qualities, to which his spiritual dimensions belong. Globalization dissolves a person in the forms of life of our contemporary age, constructed by it and with the help of the mass media, and including material consumption and extreme passivity. Globalization is the ultimate form of producing human passivity on a global scale: it encroaches on the essence of a person, as a responsible creator of his own life. In globalization, the human personality is blurred, unified, and has few means for self-preservation, and even less for development. Thus, the author recognizes that the spiritual content of globalization is destructive and poses a threat to an already spiritually weakened humanity. And yet the future of mankind is not hopeless. The spiritual essence of man is fundamentally indestructible, which inspires reasonable hope for retaining spirituality within the horizon of the development of man and mankind.
This paper explores problems of social development in the modern global world, as determined by objective, subjective, economic, political, spiritual, and other factors. The scientific and technological development taking place in the modern world has radically changed the vector of civilizational development as a whole: new relations are emerging in society, leading to new paradigms. This paper provides an analysis of the social and philosophical significance of digitalization, including blogging and banking. The author argues that in these complex social phenomena, one should not look only for the positive; just like in any other large-scale changes, digitalization, blogging and electronic banking have certain disadvantages. The author raises for discussion their negative aspects and the dangers that lurk in them. The author also analyzes the significance and dependence between the development of industrial and humanitarian intellects, and the preservation of the techno-humanitarian balance, and concludes that the higher the potential for production technologies, the more perfect the means of influencing nature and the less aggressive the struggle for the survival of mankind. And this, according to the author, is the basis for maintaining the fragile balance of the anthropo-socio-techno-natural complex.
The modern model of development emphasizes the economy, and treats economic causation as a key factor of global phenomena such as globalization. The article aims to demonstrate that globalization is multidimensional. Moreover, globalization is a global socio-natural process, which was programmed by the features of the Earth and the emergence of mankind as a social stage of global evolution. The authors analyze the evolution of global processes and identify world-historical and universal-global laws. Evolutionary socio-natural processes have three main characteristics: the expansion of the space under development, the growth of the interaction between main components, and the formation of universal forms of further progressive development. This “global triad” will continue into the future, including into space. However, further socio-natural development requires humanity to overcome global problems. The transition to sustainable development as a controlled and balanced form of development will ensure the preservation and co-evolution of the global “society-nature” system.
This article discusses the controversies of globalization in its homogenizing and hegemonistic form, the continuation of which threatens the future of humankind. The US policy of global domination undermines the international rule of law and fuels a new cold war, which increases the risk of a nuclear catastrophe. The author argues for a cosmopolitan perspective, at the center of which reside human individuals and humanity, the recognition of socio-cultural diversity, and the voluntary collaboration of free nations. Cosmopolitanism represents a positive alternative to both a conflict-ridden state-centric Westphalian system and a hegemon-centric system; it offers a new type of relationship oriented toward peace, justice, and mutually beneficial collaboration. The article highlights the main characteristics of a “new cosmopolitanism” as reflexive, rooted, dialogic, critical, democratic, and transformative. Attention is paid to the works of Jacques Derrida and Fred Dallmayr and their elaboration of the conception of a “cosmopolitanism to come.”