This Chapter presents the thought of Zhang Junmai in the last twenty years of his life. Compared to Yin and Xu, Zhang’s model of Chinese democracy seems to have been more balanced. While Yin leaned towards Western liberal-democratic values, and Xu insisted on the Confucian foundation of Chinese democracy, Zhang was advocating “the unity of virtue and law” (de yu fa zhi heyi德與法之合一), hoping to strike a balance between traditional Chinese and modern Western values in his political design.
The introduction explains the background of this study and its relations to contemporary China. It also sets out the questions to be addressed in this book and summarizes the major findings of the book.
This chapter focuses on Xu Fuguan’s Confucian model of a democratic China. His model was primarily based upon Confucian values. He particularly put an emphasis on dezhi德治 (rule of virtue), as opposed to fazhi法治 (rule of law), in his political design. To him, modern democratic values could be adopted on the basis of the Chinese Confucian tradition. What Xu was promoting was indeed an opposite of the ideals of Yin Haiguang.
This chapter investigates Yin Haiguang’s liberal-scientific model of a democratic China. He was keen to promote democracy and science—two major ideas of the May Fourth Movement—in the 1950s and saw Chinese tradition as an impediment to China’s modernization. It was only in the 1960s, after the collapse of the democratic movement in Taiwan, that he began to seek spiritual contentment from Confucian values and reevaluate them.
This chapter analyzes the impact of global Cold War currents on the Chinese émigrés, as the adherents of different schools of thought could hardly avoid encountering this global phenomenon in the 1950s. Their responses were, however, diverse. Many of the liberals yielded to the currents, but others, especially the hardcore moderate socialists, did not.
This chapter explores how the émigré intellectuals perceived the tasks of national salvation and democratization. Many of the intellectuals who fled the Chinese mainland on the eve of Communist takeover followed the Nationalist government to Taiwan, but others decided to go to the British colony of Hong Kong or overseas. This decision directly shaped their responses to the question of how to prioritize the two tasks, so that they each took different approaches. Taiwan-based intellectuals tended to regard the island as a starting point for any worthwhile anti-Communist activities. Those who lived in Hong Kong or overseas preferred straightforward counteroffensives launched by new military forces independent from Taiwan. However, their plans remained almost impossible.
Treasure (Tibetan: gter ma) lineages are distinctive forms of visionary Buddhist practice found throughout the classical Tibetan literary world. Treasures are revealed by tertön (gter ston), Buddhist masters with karmic connections to the Tibetan past who have been preordained to recover treasures at the right time and place. There has been rich scholarship on the processes of treasure discovery and communities that have been inspired by treasure literature, but the publication and distribution histories of treasure texts have been comparatively understudied. Drawing on the work of historian Nile Green related to the mass production of Islamic texts produced in Mumbai that circulated through the modern Indian Ocean world, I will examine how the political and economic changes of the twentieth century impacted and transformed the promulgation of visionary literature in classical Tibetan language, and the circumstances that allowed for ‘printing enchantment’, and the power of the book, to remain intact.
Kaishien gaden was a widely read and influential pair of Japanese books based on the famous Chinese painting manual, Jieziyuan huazhuan. They are among the earliest examples of Japanese color printing. Close examination of many almost identical copies of Series A (1748) and Series B (1753) offers insight into the publishing practices of four different sets of publishers. Even with exemplars printed by the same publisher, there was much variation in the use of seals and color palettes, leading to many different states of each book. Assuming that each print run would be identical in not only the pages printed from the blocks, but also in the use of seals and colors, it can be estimated that there were roughly fifty to eighty print runs of each of these books over their 65–70 year initial history.
Early twentieth-century Korean publishing was undergirded by a twofold urgency: the construction of a new inscriptional culture premised on the telos of text production using the Korean writing system and the imperatives of the production of knowledge about Korea’s past against colonial censorship and the colonial episteme. This paper traces early twentieth-century reception of yadam texts from Chosŏn Korea (1392–1910). The paper first examines how the ‘Syosyŏl’ (쇼셜 小說) section of the Korean-language weekly Kyŏnghyang sinmun (Capital and Provinces Weekly, 1906.10.19–1910.12.30) integrated eighteen Chosŏn yadam texts in 1909 and next analyzes the rhetorical framing and orthographic materiality of several collections of tales from precolonial Korea in the 1910s and 1920s. These two reception moments formed a process of transcontextualization that authenticated tales of precolonial Korea as heritage tales, priming Korean co-nationals to romance Korea’s precolonial past as an idyllic haven and a wellspring of national pride.