The study investigated the role of international trade in economic performance in Tanzania for the post reform period, from 1980 to 2018. International trade is measured by disaggregated imports and exports while economic performance is measured by GDP growth. Exports are disaggregated into manufactured goods and non-manufactured goods while imports are disaggregated into capital goods and intermediate goods. To obtain robust non-spurious regression results, Dickey-Fuller (D-F) and Phillips-Peron (PP) Unit Root tests were performed. Johansen Co-integration tests were employed to investigate long-run relationships between export, imports and economic growth. The Johansen test suggested a long-run relationship between international trade and its components and economic development. In addition, the Error Correction Model (ECM) results further supported a long-run relationship between international trade and economic growth in Tanzania. This calls for further opening of the economy and further liberalisation of trade restrictions.
This paper discusses the political power dynamics over land between the state and traditional leadership in relation to issues surrounding the Malawi new land laws of 2016 (i.e., land reforms). The passing of new land bills in parliament represented one of the most contentious political issues in the country between the state and traditional leadership. From a political perspective, the paper takes this disagreement over land policy between traditional leadership and the state as a clash between two sources of power with land reform being merely a platform. Using the land reform process therefore, the paper examines how these sources of power were applied. The paper therefore contributes to the existing debate of the relationship between state and traditional leadership in the modern era. The findings are derived from a qualitative research through key informant interviews with selected traditional leaders, government officials, members of parliament, Civil Society activists and academics. The findings confirm what the literature says that land reform is basically a highly politicized process. Another important finding is that the current political factors show that the land reform process will ultimately be in favour of traditional leadership’s interest. The paper argues that both formal and informal powers are used by government and chiefs as they influence each other regarding which reforms to be adopted bearing mind that the interests of these players are embedded the institutional design of the same reforms.
This article is a report of an archaeological investigation of the Laloi East Molluscs Site at Kpone, Greater Accra Region, Ghana. Although radiometric dates for this shell midden are currently unavailable, we believe that Laloi East dates to the Later Stone Age. If so, this site would be one of only two LSA sites in Ghana found and excavated along the coast rather than in the forested interior. This article examines shellfish exploitation and other major subsistence strategies of the population that settled the site in the past. The principal cultural materials recovered from the excavations comprised large quantities of molluscs’ remains belonging to a variety of species, other faunal remains, pottery, palm kernel nuts, charcoal, stone slabs, and lithic tools. The combined evidence indicates that molluscs’ exploitation was the principal subsistence strategy of the settlers, undertaken alongside hunting, trapping, herding and the gathering of edible botanical resources such as palm fruits.
The increased complexity of state management, following a rapid territorial expansion, pushed the Ur III administration (2112–2004 BC) to integrate the production and redistribution network with commodities and food providers which have been previously handled at a limited local scale. Fish and fishermen were among them. After 30 years since Robert Englund’s seminal study on Sumerian fisheries, new evidence provided by the northern provinces of the realm and newly edited textual sources encouraged a reconsideration of the data. The present contribution aims at quantifying the actual circulation of fish through the analysis of its distribution pattern, as well as at identifying possible fishing grounds and processing centres. Further, fishermen’s participation to the institutional economy will be evaluated.
This note aims to open up a discussion regarding a particular group of Islamic metalwork. It is the case of some particular ewers attested by three objects produced in Mamluk Egypt dating back from the end of the 13th century. Later specimens are evidence of a broad Indian production and exportation of this type of objects. The note poses some issues on the first production of this group of objects in India and its likely diffusion towards Egypt.
This paper reviews and comments upon a recent monograph by Aaron M. Butts on linguistic contacts between Greek and Syriac, Language Change in the Wake of Empire: this volume is also used as an opportunity to discuss the expectations for this kind of studies in the future years, and to reflect upon their past. The importance of Butts’ book as a crucial tool for the scholarly community involved in contact-induced studies is here highlighted. Butts offers a most welcome new and thorough analysis of the materials collected by his predecessors and adds his personal new data. This review article also provides a brief recollection of previous studies, that opened the way to Butts’ comprehensive approach.
The travelogues from the late-19th century voyages of Iranians offer important knowledge on the political, social and cultural history of the modern state. Attention has been directed mainly towards the diaries of travels in Europe, less to the works recording the impressions of those who, for various reasons, travelled within the country during the Qâjâr era. Among these, the Khâterât-e Hâjj Sayyâh, by Mirzâ Mohammad ‘Ali Mahallâti, better known as Hâjj Sayyâh, is of remarkable interest. The article examines several aspects of this ‘travel diary’; in particular their revelation of the author’s critical and pessimistic vision of his homeland and those who are currently governing it. We observe the processes of defining a national ‘self’ in contrast to the ‘other’, influenced by comparisons between Europe and the needs for modernisation, but also from memories of greatness.