Ground parenchyma cells play a crucial role in the growth and the mechanical properties of bamboo plants. Investigation of the morphology of ground parenchyma cells is essential for understanding the physiological functions andmechanical properties of these cells. This study aimed to characterize the anatomical structure of bamboo ground parenchyma cells and provide a qualitative and quantitative basis for the more effective utilization of bamboo. To do this, the morphology of ground parenchyma cells in Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) was studied using light microscopy and field-emission environmental scanning electron microscopy. Results show that various geometric shapes of ground parenchyma cells were observed, including nearly circular, square, long, oval, and irregular shapes. Cell walls of both long and short parenchyma cells exhibited primary wall thickening and secondary wall thickening, resulting in a primary pit field and simple pits. Most long cells were strip-shaped (L/W = 2.52), while most short cells were short and wide (L/W = 0.59). The proportion of long cells was 11 times greater than that of short cells. Most long cells were filled with starch grains, and some short cells also occasionally had starch grains. These findings allowed the first construction of the three-dimensional structure of parenchyma cells.
Considering the high importance of leek as a vegetable crop, this species is rarely an object of molecular genetic studies. In this study, SRAP and ISSR markers were used for the first time to investigate the genetic diversity in Turkish leek accessions together with some morphological characters. The study was conducted in Erciyes University Faculty of Agriculture in 2018–2020. Thirty-seven local varieties were collected from different towns in Turkey. Also, nineteen leek accessions, which originated from different regions of Turkey, had been kindly obtained from Plant Gene Banks, USDA. Seventeen SRAP and three ISSR markers were screened; all of them exposing 137 reproducible bands, of which 114 resulted in polymorphic. Polymorphism information content (PIC) varied between 0.209 and 0.840. Genetic similarities varied from 0.563 to 0.960, with an average of 0.789. In addition to molecular markers, the entire gene pool was morphologically characterized over two-year data. For this purpose, eight characters, which play a key role in leek breeding, were measured. At the end of the study, the analyzes made according to the molecular and morphological data were compared both separately and in combination. In all groupings, it was found remarkable that the accessions numbered 98*3, 40*1, 40*4, and 40*6 were positioned differently from the others. These results have provided important insights into the genetic variability of Turkish leek accessions for the first time. Also, the diversity analysis performed in this study provides valuable information to researchers for future studies.
The lianas in the family Sapindaceae are known for their unique secondary growth which differs from climbing species in other plant families in terms of their cambial variants. The present study deals with the stem anatomy of self-supporting and lianescent habit, development of phloem wedges, the ontogeny of cambial variants and structure of the secondary xylem in the stems of Serjania mexicana (L.) Willd. Thick stems (15–20 mm) were characterized by the presence of distinct phloem wedges and tangentially wide neo-formed cambial cylinders. As the stem diameter increases, there is a proportional increase in the number of phloem wedges and neo-formed vascular cylinders. The parenchymatous (pericyclic) cells external to phloem wedges that are located on the inner margin of the pericyclic fibres undergo dedifferentiation, become meristematic and form small segments of cambial cylinders. These cambia extend tangentially into wide and large segments of neoformations. Structurally, the secondary xylem and phloem of the neo-formed vascular cylinders remain similar to the derivatives produced by the regular vascular cambium. The secondary xylem is composed of vessels (wide and narrow), fibres, axial and ray parenchyma cells. The occurrence of perforated ray cells is a common feature in both regular and variant xylem.
Metal pollution represents a serious issue for sustainable agronomy and food safety. Activation of plants’ protective mechanisms has been shown to depend on the extent of soil contamination with metal, but reports on dose-dependent responses (especially to extreme concentrations) are rather rare. In this research we exposed soybean (Glycine max L.) roots at a very early stage to a scale of cadmium concentrations, including doses far exceeding the amounts found in nature. Spectrophotometrical and enzyme in-gel detection assays were used to examine ongoing defence responses. The results confirmed commonly reported findings on inhibited growth and the activation of several superoxide dismutase isoforms in a dose-dependent manner. Contrary to expectations, the hydrogen peroxide levels, proline accumulation and the rate of lipid peroxidation were suppressed with increasing metal doses. More importantly, the linearity of Cd accumulation in soybean roots was interrupted at 200 mg.l−1 of cadmium, which coincides with peculiar responses of several chitinase family members. No such nonlinear response was observable for proline accumulation or any of the SOD isoforms. Possible explanations are provided and the importance of considering the metal stress dose is stressed to avoid false generalizations on plant defence responses.
We describe the first evidence of fossil Abies wood from the late early Miocene fossil plant assemblage of Wiesa in east Germany. The comparatively well-preserved piece of xylitic wood was recovered in the kaolin quarry at Hasenberg hill in Wiesa. The Wiesa assemblage is characterized as being allochthonous and partly parautochthonous mass deposits of diaspores, leaves, and wood. The latter component is rather incompletely studied so far. The described fossil is characterized by high rays, mostly uniseriate bordered pits, generally thick and pitted horizontal and tangential ray cell walls, but also partly smooth horizontal ray cell walls, absence of ray tracheids, the occurrence of traumatic resin canals, and rare occurrence of axial parenchyma of two types. This type of fossil wood has been described as Abietoxylon shakhtnaense Blokhina from the Oligo-Miocene of Sakhalin, Russia. Due to nomenclatural issues of Abietoxylon a recombination to Cedroxylon Kraus emend. Gothan is proposed following common practice for affiliation of abietoid fossil wood of Cenozoic age. Cedroxylon shakhtnaense comb. nov. shares anatomical characteristics with the wood of extant Abies Mill., in particular with sections Abies and Grandis, and is most closely related to section Grandis. The properly preserved fossil wood from Wiesa provides the opportunity of applying qualitative and quantitative analyses for testing and discussing its placement in relationship to intra-tree variability and ontogenetic aspects. The first evidence of fossil wood of Abies from Wiesa confirms again the presence of the genus in mid-latitude subtropical zonal vegetation during the beginning of the Miocene Climatic Optimum.
Diospyros L. (Ebenaceae) is an important source of ebony, a precious wood used for several economically important timber products. Species are overexploited in many regions, including Madagascar, for both the national and international trade, but little is known about their wood anatomy, despite its importance for forensic identification. Wood anatomy has a major role to play in ensuring the sustainable and equitable utilization of Diospyros species that are not threatened by extinction, and in law enforcement to protect threatened species from illegal logging. This study aims to identify, describe, and test the usefulness of anatomical features to support a taxonomic revision of the genus in Madagascar and to enrich databases for wood identification. Ninety-nine wood specimens were collected from the various bio-geographical regions of Madagascar, representing 15 endemic species (twelve previously described and three new) of large trees (reaching DBH ⩾ 20 cm and/or height ⩾ 20 m) were investigated. Standard methods for wood anatomical studies were used. Statistical analysis of the data using Factorial Analysis on Mixed Data was performed for 14 wood anatomical characters. Detailed descriptions and comparisons of the wood anatomy of the 15 species are provided, along with a wood identification key. Analyses showed that all the characters are highly significant () in the separation of the species studies.
The anatomical structure of the bamboo stem is characterized by vascular bundles comprising the xylem, phloem, and sclerenchyma fibrous sheaths as well as parenchymatous ground tissue in which the vascular bundles are embedded. The composition of the stem is the main factor influencing the anatomical characteristics of circular bamboo, which shows considerable variation in the radial direction. However, most species of Chimonobambusa have square stems. Here, we tested the hypothesis that circumferential variation exists in the cross-sectional anatomy of this species. We analysed fibre morphology and the cross-sectional structural characteristics of vascular bundles of Chimonobambusa quadrangularis (Fenzi) Makino and their associated circumferential and radial variation in cross-sections. Microscopic observations were conducted to identify, measure, and compare fibre morphology and the structural characteristics of vascular bundles, including both circumferential and radial anatomical variation. Vascular bundles occurred as undifferentiated, semi-differentiated, and open types in the radial direction with no changes in the circumferential direction. The average length, width, and ratio of fibre length to width were 1463.6 μm, 12.3 μm and 119.3 in the corner region, and 1452.7 μm, 12.8 μm, and 111.3 in the side region, and there were significant circumferential and radial differences in length, width, and the ratio of fibre length to width (). The circumferential variation in density of vascular bundles, the ratio of fibre length to width, radial to tangential diameter ratio of vascular bundles, and the proportion of sclerenchyma were greater in the corner regions than the side regions. The variation in fibre width and the proportion of parenchyma were greater in the corner regions than in the side regions. The density of vascular bundles and proportions of sclerenchyma were greater in the outer stem compared to the inner stem, whereas the length, width, and ratio of fibre length to width were greatest in the centre compared to the inner and outer zones. Circumferential variation of the density of vascular bundles, fibre length and fibre width occurred in the central and outer stem zones. These findings confirm that there are significant anatomical variations in both the circumferential and radial directions and provide a scientific basis for the rational use of Chimonobambusa quadrangularis.
Wood density constitutes an integrative trait of water relations and growth. We compared the recently developed blue intensity (BI) method, which has only rarely been applied to tropical conifers, for determining wood density with anatomical analyses in studying the three rarely investigated palaeotropical pine species Pinus kesiya, P. dalatensis and P. krempfii, which co-occur in South-Central Vietnam, but differ in their distribution areas. For species comparisons, we also calculated the hydraulic conductivity of the xylem with the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and the water potential causing 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity () based on the anatomical analyses. We hypothesized (i) that the BI values are correlated with the cell wall fractions, the calculated hydraulic conductivity and the values; and (ii) that the wider occurrence of P. kesiya, which also can grow at drier sites, is reflected by higher wood density, lower hydraulic conductivity, lower (more negative) values and a smaller variation in the wood anatomical features across the years compared to the other two species. In agreement to our hypotheses, the results of the BI and the anatomical method were closely correlated, especially for sapwood, and P. kesiya exhibited features that are related to the growth at drier sites and to a higher tolerance towards drought: higher wood density and cell wall:lumen area ratios of its smaller xylem conduits, lower calculated hydraulic conductivity and more negative values. The BI method is well suitable for determining the wood density in tropical conifers. As a fast and inexpensive method, it may be used for initial screening woody species for their water transport capacity and drought resistance.