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Summary

Cryptaphelenchus recticaudatus n. sp. is described and illustrated in Pinus elliottii from the USA. The new species is characterised by the female body 310-431 μm long with distinctly annulated cuticle, lateral fields with four lines, lip region separated from the body by a shallow depression, delicate stylet with small knobs, post-vulval uterine sac short, and rectum and anus invisible. Males are 228-314 μm long, spicules 9.8-12.4 μm long with a well-developed and broad condylus, and seven caudal papillae arranged as a single (P1) and pair (P2) of precloacal papillae plus two pairs of postcloacal papillae. Based upon the general female morphology, the new species most closely resembles C. baujardi and C. iranicus. The morphological differences with the aforementioned species and other species of the genus are discussed. The phylogenetic analyses based on small (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) D2-D3 expansion segments of ribosomal DNA of different individuals of the new species revealed that the new species fell into the Cryptaphelenchus clade in both SSU and LSU trees. The monophyly of the genus was retained after adding newly generated sequences of the new species.

In: Nematology

Abstract

This paper adopts an embodied cognitive perspective to review the significance of dynamic patterns in the visual expression of meaning. Drawing upon the work of Rudolf Arnheim we first show how perceptual dynamics of inanimate objects might be extended in order to structure abstract meaning in fixed images such as paintings. Second, we evaluate existing experimental work that shows how simple kinematic structures within a stationary frame might embody such high-level properties as perceptual causality and animacy. Third and last, we take inspiration from these experiments to shed light on the expressiveness of dynamic patterns that unfold once the frame itself becomes a mobile entity (i.e., camera movement). In the latter case we will also present a filmic case study, showing how filmmakers might resort to these dynamic patterns so as to embody a film’s story content, while simultaneously offering a further avenue for film scholars to deepen their engagement with the experimental method.

In: Art & Perception

Abstract

Birds often vocalize when threatened or captured by a predator. We present detailed qualitative analyses of calls from 24 red-capped plover (Charadrius ruficapillus) and 117 masked lapwing (Vanellus miles) chicks (Charadriidae) that we recorded during handling. Calls were structurally complex and differed between species. Calls showed moderate structure at higher levels of organization (e.g., similarity between successive calls; sequential grading). Some call characteristics resembled those in other bird species in similar circumstances (e.g., in nonlinear phenomena). Most calls consisted of several different parts, which combined in different ways across calls. Past studies have overlooked most features of distress calls and calling in charadriids due to small sample sizes and limited spectrographic analyses. Understanding interspecific patterns in call structure, and determination of call functions, will require: detailed knowledge of natural history; detailed behavioural descriptions, acoustic analysis, and analyses of development and growth; and experimental investigations of call functions.

In: Behaviour

Abstract

Rapid urbanization exerts novel adaptive pressures on animals at the interface of natural and altered environments. Urban animals often rely on synthetic foods that require skilled extraction and flexible processing. We studied how synthetic treatment of an embedded food, peanut, determined its extraction and processing across groups of bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) differing in encounter and familiarity with peanut. The possibility of the application of processing methods to similar foods was also tested. We found encounter- and form (native/shelled/skinned)-specific familiarity to peanuts, state (raw/boiled/roasted)-specific distinction in skinning, and encounter- and state-specific differences in methods of skinning. The group with the highest encounter with peanuts exhibited novel and manipulatively complex processing. Novel processing was also extended to peas and chickpeas. Our study establishes a strong relationship between familiarity with the condition of food and the processing methods used and further, demonstrates the probable role of categorization in extension of novel methods.

In: Behaviour
Free access
In: KronoScope

Abstract

Assessment of parasites and their pathogenicity is essential for studying the ecology of populations and understanding their dynamics. In this study, we investigate the prevalence and intensity of infection of haemogregarines (phylum Apicomplexa) in two sympatric lizard species, Podarcis vaucheri and Scelarcis perspicillata, across three localities in Morocco, and their effect on host immune response. We used the Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) skin testing technique to relate the level of immune response with parasite infection. Prevalence and intensity levels were estimated with microscopy, and 18S rRNA gene sequences were used to confirm parasite identity. All parasites belong to the haemogregarine lineage found in other North African reptiles. There were differences in prevalence between localities and sexes. Overall, infected lizards were larger than uninfected ones, although we did not detect differences in parasitaemia across species, sex or locality. The swelling response was not related to the presence or number of haemogregarines, or to host body size, body condition, sex or species. We found no evidence of impact for these parasites on the circulating blood cells or the hosts’ immune system, but more data is needed to assess the potential impact of mixed infections, and the possibility of cryptic parasite species.

In: Amphibia-Reptilia

Abstract

The Carabidae is by far the largest family of the Adephaga, with more than 40,000 described species. Whereas their phylogeny has been extensively studied, convergences and reversals in morphological traits prevent a robust phylogenetic concept so far. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of Notiophilus quadripunctatus (Nebriinae) and Omophrom limbatum (Omophroninae) using high-throughput sequencing. Both mitogenomes consisted of a single circular DNA molecule that encoded the typical 13 protein-coding genes, two subunits of mitochondrial RNAs, 22 tRNAs and a putative control region. Our phylogenetic study placed Omophrom limbatum as sister taxon to all other analyzed ground beetle species whereas Notiophilus quadripunctatus was identified as sister to Nebria brevicollis as part of the Nebriinae. The analyses also support the monophyly of the Cicindelidae but place Trachypachus holmbergi (Trachypachidae) within the Carabidae. Nevertheless, almost all carabid subfamilies with more than one analyzed species were identified as monophyla.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution
In: KronoScope

Abstract

Previous literature suggested that different countries and regions are associated with different temporal cultures resulting in according scheduling styles: people in anglo-european countries supposedly plan and structure their life predominantly according to the clock (clock time orientation) while people in some other parts of the world are more prone to live their lives in disregard of clock time but follow inner needs and/or the structure given by the events that happen in their lives (event time orientation). However, recent research shows that scheduling styles are also adaptive responses to situational demands and event and clock timing are associated with different experiences of control. Transferring these findings to a cross-cultural setting, we investigated whether situational context is the predominant factor explaining the application of different scheduling styles. To this end, we used a mixed-methods approach with semi-structured interviews exploring whether participants from Uganda and Germany (employees with fixed working hours) differ in the level to which they structure their narratives of daily routines of time associated with work primarily in reference to the clock while recounting free time predominantly in reference to events and/or inner needs. Our data, processed using qualitative content analysis, show this pattern for the participants from both countries. Overall interviewees from Germany do not refer to the clock more often than their Ugandan counterparts. This suggests that individuals’ scheduling styles reflect intersituational adaptations to a given demand for synchronization rather than being kind of a strong cultural imprint on individuals.

In: Timing & Time Perception
Author: Carla Gabrí

Abstract

This paper aims at re-evaluating two of Hungarian artist Dóra Mauer’s films, the video work Proportions (1979) and the 16mm film Timing (1973/80). Both films follow a rigid structure. In Proportions, Maurer uses a paper roll to compare her own body measures repeatedly; in Timing, she repeatedly folds a white linen to compare the rhythm of her arm movements. Through her use of paper and the gesture of folding, the two films can be read as references to the very origin of the term format, as coined in early letterpress printing. When the notion of format is understood as a determination of a ratio and, as such, as an indexical reference to given social relationships (Summers, 2003), these films unfold sociocultural and political meanings. The present paper traces this spectrum of meaning through the pointed inclusion of historical discourses surrounding early motion studies, the art scene in socialist Hungary in the 1970s, and early time experiments before the advent of precision clocks.

In: KronoScope