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Abstract

The tree-ring lab at BOKU University, Vienna, Austria has been sampling and dating by means of dendrochronology in the eastern part of Austria since 1996. Among other objects, the roof constructions of 982 historical buildings were analysed, resulting in 13 916 samples. The time span extends from the oldest roof truss at a church in Salzburg, dated to 1135, to the youngest in Vienna, dated to 1997. The aim of present paper is to provide an overview of the findings on historical roof constructions in Austria based on data collected over the last 27 years. Out of the total sample elements, 69.0% were made out of Norway spruce, followed by silver fir with 19.6%. All other species played a minor role: pine (5.0%), larch (3.6%), oak (2.7%), followed by a few elements made of stone pine, elm, beech, and poplar. The proportion of wood species reflects the significant influence of alpine regions. Within the city of Vienna, where all building timber was rafted, the amount of spruce wood is 72.3%. There were no clear visible changes in the wood species share over time. Along with dendro-dating, building historians have been analyzing the typology of roof trusses and the changes within time. It was possible to see clear alterations from simple rafter constructions to huge multi-level constructions with standing and sometimes hanging columns and roof constructions with lying posts (in the plane of the rafters) that transition back to constructions with standing columns.

Open Access
In: International Journal of Wood Culture
In: Acta Archaeologica
Author:

Abstract

This paper explores the architectural manifestations for ritual and public dining spaces in the ancient Greek world as defined by architectural characteristics or other material remains. Hestiatoria have traditionally been defined as “dining spaces” on the basis of loose architectural distinctions, such as rooms set aside in sanctuaries, sometimes with off-center doorways, indications of klinai or other small finds that suggest dining. Rooms in stoas sometimes served for dining purposes, as is well attested, but the form of the complexes differs substantially. Can there be a more precise typology made of these buildings and the indicators which might suggest different practices? Are there specific differences architecturally between ritual dining and public dining? These and other considerations are addressed in conjunction with literary testimonia for dining practices in an attempt to bring into focus the varied architectural record.

In: Acta Archaeologica
Author:

Abstract

In this article, Hansen analyzes and discusses the construction of the fourth-century BC. Temple of Apollo at Delphi, taking into consideration the practical aspects of this difficult construction process. He includes the unique epigraphic building accounts that have been made accessible to non-philologists with Jean Bousque’s edition and French translation of the fragments published in 1989. Thereby Hansen offers a masterful revised calendar of the whole building process of the third largest temple on the Greek mainland.

In: Acta Archaeologica

Abstract

The form of the Greek temple responded to multiple purposes, influences and concepts, although one of these, that of offering, deserves more attention than it has received to date. The fundamental status of offering for Greek religion and its societal expression resulted in sanctuaries being choc-a-bloc with all manner of dedications, some of which represented the finest displays of artistic merit, workmanship, materials and cost that could be afforded. Indeed, as is well known, much of the Greek art on view in modern museums originally had the status of offerings made for dedication in sanctuaries. While it is true that some scholars of religion have noted that temples too were offerings, amongst other things, the implications have generally gone unnoticed. After reviewing the various functions of temples, this essay identifies nuances of offering in their plan, size, elevation, architectural elements, ornamentation and quality. This helps us to appreciate temples as cultural manifestations akin to everything else in the sanctuaries. As works of architecture the form of the Greeks’ temples responded to multiple issues (construction, precedent, influences and so on), but now we can see how their visual treatment subtly and yet eloquently reflected their very nature.

In: Acta Archaeologica
Author:

Abstract

This contribution presents the first survey of the full range of sources for the dedication of paintings to the gods of the Greek-speaking world, including Egypt. This phenomenon has been largely overlooked due to the rarity of such dedications, in contrast to the countless dedicatory objects fashioned from stone and other durable materials, which have survived in relative abundance. Although some types of dedicatory painting, particularly the well-known Archaic and Classical terracotta pinakes from Attika and the painted wooden panels from Pitsa, have been studied by numerous scholars, other examples have been neglected, along with many written sources. Seeking to fill this gap in the scholarship, this article collects the full range of sources demonstrating the importance of paintings as a type of dedication – not only the paintings that still survive on terracotta, stone, and stucco, but also a varied and intriguing body of literary and epigraphical testimonia. The result is a study that for the first time provides scholars of Greek religion and Greek art a detailed overview of this aspect of Greek cult, and delves into various issues – methodological and otherwise – crucial to understanding its nature.