Using novel quantitative data from the Millennial Trends Survey administered online in March 2019 with over 2,500 respondents between the ages of 18 and 35 in both Canada and the U.S., we examine in detail inherited (non)religion as well as intergenerational conversion and disaffiliation among young adult birth cohorts. Key results include approximately two thirds of Millennials in our sample belonging to the same (non)religious tradition of at least one of their parents. Among the remaining one third who did have a different religious (non)affiliation than their parents at the time of the survey, intergenerational disaffiliation was the most common change present: especially in Canada, but also in the U.S. Intergenerational retention of nonreligion among families where both parents are nonreligious are especially high among Millennials in both countries, a characteristic of this generation’s much more secular social milieu.
Since Pope John Paul II’s stock-taking of twentieth century martyrs, the Catholic Church has significantly increased the beatification and canonization of martyrs. Not only have the numbers of martyrs increased but the definition of martyrdom has expanded. Using a comprehensive new data set on Catholic martyrs (1588 to 2020), we argue that the Vatican’s recent emphasis on martyrs is a strategic response to competition with Protestants, specifically Evangelicals. Martyrs, unlike regular saints (confessors), tend to be predominantly male and died in parts of the world where the Catholic Church was actively involved in evangelization or had a significant presence. Martyrdom often associates with violent events, such as the Spanish Civil War, World War II, and the French Revolution, and with mass persecutions, such as in the English Reformation or in cases of repression of missionaries, as in Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and China.
This study examines women’s attitudes toward the own use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) by their religious affiliation in Germany. The social relevance of ART is increasing in Western countries due to overall low birth rates, a high rate of childlessness, and a gap between the desired and the actual numbers of children. Previous literature has been scarce, however, on attitudes toward ART, and religious diversity has not been included in studies on ART. Our analysis is based on data collected in a pilot study in 2014 and 2015. The sample includes 944 women aged 18 to 50 living in Germany. The results show that Muslim women were significantly more likely than Christian women to say they would consider using ART; having no religious affiliation was associated with the least open attitude toward ART usage.
The following tables represent the results of analysis of data on religion for all of the countries of the world which appear in the World Religion Database (Johnson and Grim 2008). These data are collected at the national level from a number of sources including censuses, surveys, polls, religious communities, scholars, and others.