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Edmund Chilaka

Abstract

This paper focuses on crime and malfeasance in Nigerian port environments since the 1990s. The discourse on crime patterns in Nigeria is often subsumed under the depredations of pirates in the Gulf of Guinea because of the immediate ramifications for international shipping. However, since the late 1900s, the incidence of crime and malfeasance in Nigerian ports, ranging from pilfering to smuggling and armed robbery, has posed a challenge to their marketability and favoured-port status within the sub-region, prompting the government’s remedial action plans prior to the implementation of the isps Code. Using primary and secondary sources, the study finds that criminals tended to adjust their tactics to evade emergent changes in port infrastructure and law enforcement networks. It concludes that the internationalisation of maritime security measures in the new millennium curtailed the most common misdemeanours, leaving the high-profile, classes of white-collar port crimes which thrive under elite protection yet to be fully addressed.

Series:

A.E. Akintayo

Abstract

Nigeria is notorious for bribery, corruption, and organised crimes, among other challenges confronting the country. Scholars have attempted to trace the root causes of the problem to several sources. The main argument of this chapter is that the analysis of the cause(s) of corruption and organised crime in Nigeria is incomplete without an examination of the contribution of the inherited class-based criminal justice system in Nigeria. This chapter, therefore, has analysed how the class-based criminal justice system, inherited from England, has contributed to the present rot in Nigeria. The submission is that it has fostered the illicit interests and corruption of the political and ruling elite and their cohorts in Nigeria through a compromised judiciary. The chapter discusses the symbiotic relationship between the class-based criminal law regime, the illicit interests of the wealthy or the monied class in Nigeria, and corruption by some members of the Nigerian judiciary.

Series:

Franca Attoh

Abstract

The chapter interrogates the phenomenon of crime at the University of Lagos (unilag), Nigeria. Using the Akoka campus as a case study, it avers that the increasing criminality in the neighbourhoods in close proximity to the campus, such as Bariga and Ilaje, is likely to affect the prevalence of crime on the campus itself. The data for the chapter were gathered through triangulation of a cross-sectional survey, in-depth interviews, and key informant interviews. The Broken Window and Defensible Space theories provide a theoretical framework for the chapter, which argues that crime on the unilag Akoka campus is insignificant,although crimes such as theft and drug use are rampant in university hostels. University walkways, classrooms, and offices also experience a relatively high rate of crime. The architectural designs of Jaja, Mariere, and NewHalls aid theft in the hostels and provide a place for cult members to hang out, in spite of the university’s zero tolerance for cultism. The chapter concludes that leaving the hostels in a dilapidated condition gives the impression that no one cares, thus making them attractive to criminals.

Series:

Ayodeji Olukoju

Abstract

Currency counterfeiting and uttering was a major threat to the integrity of colonial administrative, commercial and financial systems in British West Africa. The menace was combated by police interdiction and prosecution of offenders under a legal system that dispensed ‘substantial justice’, devoid of reliance on technicalities. Relying on archival records, including proceedings of the trial of the protagonist, Tijani Ali, this paper highlights the perils and inconsistencies of speedy justice under the Lugardian ‘law and order’ regime in Northern Nigeria; the limitations of ad hoc judges in the adjudication of criminal cases; the limited opportunities for redress by aggrieved colonial subjects; the importance of context (local, regional, or global), exemplified in this case by inter-war economic vicissitudes; and the need to focus on individual actors to humanize crime by giving a human face and voice to the accused persons. The paper also demonstrates that the criminal profiling of ethnicities and occupational groups (the Ijebu and goldsmiths, respectively, in this case) during the colonial period presaged current practices of racial profiling in some Western countries. In the end, Tijani Ali was served ‘substantial injustice’ through a flawed dispensation of ‘substantial justice’.

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Rufus Akinyele and Ton Dietz

Series:

Abiodun Oluwadare

Abstract

Nigeria’s Niger Delta is rich in mineral resources and provides more than 80 per cent of Nigeria’s revenue. It has also been a major source of insecurity in the country. The restiveness, the result of militant youths in the region demanding compensation from Multinational Oil Corporations (mnoc) exploring the area’s oil resources, continues unabated. This chapter examines the causes of the restiveness that has assumed a criminal dimension. It reveals that since the discovery and exploration of oil, the Niger Delta has experienced tensions and contestations over resource control, environmental degradation, and minority protests. The Government of Nigeria, which has gained so much from the oil resources, has neglected the development of the area rendering it one of the poorest in the world. It reveals that these youthful agitations precipitated a series of criminal activities ranging from kidnapping to pipeline vandalism and other criminal tendencies. The study recommends that the government and the mnocs acknowledge their responsibilities and develop the Niger Delta to promote peace and development in Nigeria.

Series:

Leo Enahoro Otoide

Abstract

Trafficking in human beings is a global scourge, with traffickers and syndicates in a complex and insidious network. Concerted global efforts to contend with this challenge have yielded minimal results. This study is on the nature and management of human trafficking in Edo State, considered as the hub of human trafficking in Nigeria. A study of the historical background, conceptual clarifications, and overviews help to place the Edo phenomenon in context. It shows that the Edo experience is neither inherent in Edo culture, nor is the trade peculiar to its people, but a national scourge that continues to exacerbate in the face of growing societal inadequacies: unemployment, political instability, greed and gross class differentials. It goes further to show that there are far-reaching institutional policy interventions and enlightenment, even by traditional institutions, aimed at curtailing the scourge as well as rehabilitating and reintegrating victims of human trafficking. The study has benefited from observations and interactive sessions with victims of human trafficking and the full complement of primary materials from government and non-governmental organisations (ngos). This chapter also contains recommendations to reduce the magnitude of the problem.

Series:

Samson Folarin

Abstract

This chapter contains a graphical description of crime in Lagos and the challenges of reporting it. The content is enriched by the findings from the author’s face to face interviews with crime suspects and victims of crime, as a reporter with the Punch Newspaper in Nigeria. The chapter highlights the connection between the status of Lagos as the commercial nerve centre of Nigeria and the high level of crime in the metropolis; the huge investment in security infrastructure and the low level of human and capital development; and the danger the crime reporter is exposed to in the course of duty. While admonishing Lagosians to take necessary precaution to avoid becoming crime victims, the author stresses that every member of the society has a role to play in reducing crime to the barest minimum.

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Jackson A. Aluede

Abstract

This chapter examines the impact of smuggling across the Nigeria–Benin border on Nigeria’s economic development in the post-colonial era. It traces the evolution of the illicit enterprise of smuggling in the borderlands between Nigeria and the Benin Republic to the colonial era, a period when French and British colonial administrators exploited and monopolised trade in their respective colonies (colonial Nigeria and the Benin Republic) to the disadvantage of local traders, a development catalysed people to engage in clandestine trading activities across the respective borders. Furthermore, it establishes that the causes of smuggling at the Nigeria–Benin border during the colonial era varied slightly from those of the post-colonial period. The chapter thus reveals that smuggling along the Nigeria–Benin border shares some characteristics with smuggling in other parts of the world. The economic implications of smuggling on Nigeria’s economic development, the effect of Benin’s economic policies, the geographical terrain of the borderlands as well as the efforts by the two countries to tackle smuggling in the border area are highlighted. Utilising primary and secondary sources, the author recommends that the Nigerian government remain protective, support local industries through adequate funding, adopt proactive legislation to curb smuggling, and improve its border security.