Carla Fernanda Burguez Floriano, Fredy Molano-Rendón, Irina Morales, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo Moreira and Pitágoras da Conceição Bispo

Platygerris White comprises true bugs that inhabit the surface of water in moderate to fast-flowing freshwater habitats. This genus differs from Cylindrostethus Mayr and Potamobates Champion (Gerridae: Cylindrostethinae) by having a short and flattened body; the mandibular and maxillary plates fused; and the omphalium, lateral groove, and lateral evaporatorium of the scent apparatus inconspicuous. In this paper, we redescribe Platygerris, describe two new species from Colombia, and redescribe P. asymmetricus Hungerford, P. caeruleus Champion and P. depressus White. In addition, we present an updated identification key to the species of the genus. For the first time, the cuticular structure is described for the genus based on electron microscopy.

Tatiana Sepúlveda and Diego Souza

The Eoneria-group was proposed to gather species with opaque antennal base from all biogeographical regions. Recently, the Eoneria-group was redefined to comprise only three genera from the Neotropical Region: Antillonerius, Eoloxozus and Eoneria. Herein, we redescribe the species of the Eoneria-group and perform a phylogenetic analysis based on 49 morphological characters. Our results corroborate the monophyly of the Eoneria-group (excluding Antillonerius bistriatus (Williston)), supported by nine synapomorphies. Antillonerius solitarius (Johnson) stat. rev. is revalidated from synonymy with Antillonerius cinereus (Röder) and a key for the species in the Caribbean islands is provided. New combinations are proposed for Eoloxozus sabroskyi Aczél, which is transferred to Eoneria, and Nerius bistriatus Williston, which is transferred to Glyphidops. Additionally, new records of E. aczeli Sepúlveda & de Carvalho are provided for Venezuela and of E. blanchardi, for Venezuela and Paraguay.

Avunjikkattu Parambil Ranjith, Cornelis van Achterberg, Dharma Rajan Priyadarsanan, Il-Kwon Kim, Rajmohana Keloth, Shweta Mukundan and Mannankadiyan Nasser

Miracinae is one of the least studied braconid subfamilies with only two extant genera. Among them, Centistidea Rohwer is a speciose and widely distributed genus. East Palearctic and Oriental species of Centistidea are revised and eight new species are described, seven of which are from south India, C. crenulator sp. n., C. glabrator sp. n., C. lineator sp. n., C. mellapicalis sp. n., C. procarinator sp. n., C. rugator sp. n., C. scutellator sp. n.; and one from South Korea, C. albomarginata sp. n. A key to the extant species is provided. Distribution pattern of Centistidea and character plasticity within species are discussed.

M. Montagna, E. Gonella, V. Mereghetti, G. Magoga, E. Ferrari, M. Pontini, C. Ferracini and A. Alma

Molecular species recognition and identification, based on the mitochondrial cox1 and on the nuclear ITS2, were performed on individuals of Torymus sinensis collected in Italy, on its close relative T. beneficus and on native torymids. The automatic-gap-discovery (ABGD) analyses correctly separate almost all morphospecies. On the basis of cox1, individuals of late-spring T. beneficus clustered with T. sinensis, and those identified as early-spring T. beneficus were recognized as a separate entity. Whereas, T. beneficus ecotypes clustered with T. sinensis on the basis of ITS2. Coalescent tree-based methods confirmed these results. The cox1-based recognition of early-spring T. beneficus as a separate phylospecies led us to conclude that this taxon deserves to be treated as a valid species, whereas individuals identified as late-spring T. beneficus might be considered as part of T. sinensis. Morphological identification and BLAST analyses confirmed that no T. beneficus was imported into Italy to control Dryocosmus kuriphilus.

Robert J. Pivar, John K. Moulton and Bradley J. Sinclair

The western Nearctic fauna of Androprosopa Mik is revised to include twenty-five species, three of which are new to science. Descriptions of the adult males of A. apache Pivar & Moulton sp.n., A. arnaudi Pivar sp.n. and A. rainierensis Pivar & Sinclair sp.n. are presented. Redescriptions of all remaining western Nearctic species are provided, as well as genitalic illustrations and updated distribution maps for each species. A diagnostic key to males of western Nearctic species of Androprosopa is offered. Species groups based on morphology are discussed.

B.C. Bellini, N.M.C. Santos, P.G.C. Souza and W.M. Weiner

Herein we describe two new species of Brazilian springtails, both from Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Brachystomella nordestina sp.n. resembles other Neotropical congeners with 8+8 eyes, postantennal organ with four lobes and 19/19/18 chaetae on tibiotarsi I–III, but it is unique in the combination of trilobed apical bulb, 2+2 dorsal chaetae on thorax I, male’s genital plate with 4+4 modified eugenital chaetae and 2+2 hr chaetae on lateral anal valves. Seira (Lepidocyrtinus) dapeste sp.n. is similar to other Neotropical species of Lepidocyrtinus Börner, 1903 in long antennae, mesonotum projected over head and presence of modified blunt macrochaetae on dorsal furca, but differs in the combination of dorsal head chaetotaxy, 14–19 a macrochaetae on thorax II, 7–9 central macrochaetae on thorax III and 4 central macrochaetae on abdomen II. We also present a detailed comparison and an updated key of the Neotropical species of Brachystomella Ågren, 1903.

Junli Yao, Cornelis van Achterberg, Michael J. Sharkey, Eric G. Chapman and Jiahua Chen

Hylcalosia Fischer, 1967, is a small braconid genus with 13 described species from the Oriental and Palaearctic regions. The genus is revised using morphological characters and a phylogenetic analysis of COI sequence data; GenBank accession numbers of fifteen sequences we generated from four species are included. Sixteen specimens from Thailand belonging to this genus were examined; five new species are described and illustrated, i.e., H. bothynis Yao n. sp., H. dichromata Yao n. sp., H. eurykephale Yao n. sp., H. leura Yao n. sp., and H. perkna Yao n. sp. A key to the species of the genus Hylcalosia is presented.

Bryan D. Lessard, David K. Yeates and Norman E. Woodley

A taxonomic treatment for the genera of the soldier fly subfamily Stratiomyinae is provided for the Australian fauna, including the first key to the Australian genera and updated key for the genus Acanthasargus White, 1914. Each genus is diagnosed and illustrated, including: Acanthasargus, Odontomyia Meigen, 1803, the newly recorded genus Prosopochrysa de Meijere, 1907 and new species Prosopochrysa lemannae Lessard & Woodley, sp.n., and the new genus and species Scutellumina parvatra Woodley & Lessard, gen.n. et. sp.n. Four genera and 30 species of Stratiomyinae are now recognised from Australia.

Xiao-Hui Yang, Zhiwei Liu, Yin Pang, Cheng-Yuan Su and Dao-Hong Zhu

Three new species of the tribe Synergini (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae), i.e., Lithosaphonecrus arcoverticus Liu, Zhu et Pang, sp. n. Lithosaphonecrus decarinatus Liu, Zhu et Pang, sp. n. and Saphonecrus emarginatus Liu, Zhu et Pang, sp. n. are described from Hunan, China. The three species have emerged from the same galls collected on Lithocarpus glaber (Thunb.) in December, June, and April, respectively. Phylogenetic reconstruction of Synergini based on mtDNA COI and rRNA 28S D2 genes resolved two independent monophyletic clades exclusively associated with Lithocarpus plant hosts, i.e., the genus Lithosaphonecus and the lithocarpii species complex of Saphonecrus. The three species each have a sister relationship with a congener in Taiwan, an island off the southeastern coast of continental China. This recurrent disjunct distribution and relatively low COI sequence variation between the sister species in each species pair are considered attributable to the formation of the Taiwan Strait in Holocene ca 10,000 years ago. We also discussed the possible speciation mechanism for Lithosaphonecrus due to seasonality and topography in subtropical China. Finally, we addressed the need for conservation consideration in urbanization planning.

Cecilia Waichert, Joseph S. Wilson, James P. Pitts and Carol D. von Dohlen

Ageniella is the second-most diverse spider wasp genus in Ageniellini (Pepsinae). The Ageniella (Ageniella) accepta species-group is found from Canada to Panama and is composed of three Nearctic species: A. accepta (Cresson), A. blaisdelli (Fox), and A. conflicta Banks. Within this group, species-level identification is difficult, because diagnostic characters are questionable, and subjective for both males and females. Furthermore, sexes of each species are not reliably associated. Herein, we investigate sex associations and the validity of described species within the A. accepta species-group based on three molecular markers (cytochrome oxidase I, wingless, long-wavelength rhodopsin) by using maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses, and species-delimitation approaches. Additionally, we mapped 12 morphological traits onto the molecular phylogeny to discuss evolution of diagnostic characters. We concluded that the three species of the A. accepta species-group are actually a single, wide-ranging species with strong geographical signal. Moreover, our results suggest introgression at the mitochondrial level.