Browse results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 4,254 items for :

  • Social & Political Philosophy x
  • Chapters/Articles x
Clear All Modify Search

Kenneth Wagner, Stephen Owen and Tod W. Burke

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to explore the perceived harmfulness, wrongfulness, and seriousness of wildlife crimes, such as illegal or unlicensed hunting or fishing. Research questions included how offenses against wildlife are perceived, compared to offenses against persons and property, and how perceptions of harmfulness and wrongfulness impact perceptions of wildlife offense seriousness. A survey modeled after previous studies of crime seriousness was administered to a college student sample. The results showed that wildlife offenses were ranked as less serious, harmful, and wrong than those against persons and property, and also less than those against companion animals and animals on farms. Perceived wrongfulness and harmfulness were significant predictors of perceived seriousness of wildlife offenses, with wrongfulness being the stronger predictor. Results are contextualized within theoretical frameworks that offer insights as to why wildlife crime is not viewed as seriously as other offense types.

Series:

Emily-Rose Carr

Abstract

Terror and the sublime have been linked in theoretical material by numerous academics, including notable sublime theorists Edmund Burke, Immanuel Kant, and Barbara Freeman. In the traditional sublime theories of Burke and Kant, terror is experienced at a distance, and it is precisely this distance which facilitates the sublime emotion. However, instances of contemporary American fiction indicate a rejection of this separating distance: they portray characters who desire to be participants in, and facilitators of, terror, thus aligning closely with the feminine sublime theory that Freeman champions. This chapter will explore, specifically, how the protagonists of Chuck Palahniuk’s Fight Club (1996) and Bret Easton Ellis’s American Psycho (1991) explore manifestations of Freeman’s feminine sublime through their dual role of violator and victim of the terror they perpetuate in the novels. While a notable amount of violent, frightening, or Gothic literature portrays a world in which a monstrous anomaly disrupts an otherwise normal society, American Psycho and Fight Club refute this tradition with examples of inherently unstable, frightening, and terrible environments in which they are willing participants. Considering this, this chapter will argue that American Psycho and Fight Club indicate not only a sublime experience with the application of terror in the novels but also that it is through this application that the specific feminine sublime manifests itself – the protagonists of each novel demonstrate the desire to be victims of the very terror they are perpetuating, suggesting a rejection of the distance that defines the traditional sublime formula.

Series:

Nicole M. Jowsey

Abstract

In Being and Time, Martin Heidegger argues that death is always impending, and as such our existence in the world is one that is Being-toward-death. Despite the fact that we can never escape death, we are constantly trying to flee it and distract ourselves from it. There is a certain anxiety and fear in the face of death that mortals experience, hence the reason we try to outrun it. Looking at the figure of the hero, we see an individual who, at times, experiences horror and terror in their lives. They face death, and they too are afraid to die; however, the hero is able to overcome such fears, in spite of the horror and terror, and meet death head on. In this respect, the hero embodies what Heidegger calls authenticity, and therefore lives an authentic life. This chapter seeks to examine the hero’s relationship to death, their fear of it, as well as their ability to overcome it and achieve authenticity. Using Achilleus and Harry Potter as examples of Ancient and Modern epic heroes, I will show how both heroes experience fear and anxiety, while facing death, but then embrace and overcome them in order to fulfill their allotted destiny and measure. Both Achilleus and Harry experience deep loss and mourning, and yet through the pain and horror are able to come to terms with their own fate and finitude. This shared experience demonstrates Heidegger’s theory and allows them to be thought of as achieving authenticity.

Series:

Ghada Saad Hassan

Abstract

The term “monster” usually defines an entity that is extremely large or unnatural, inhuman, horrible, or wicked. However, that term has evolved to acquire various connotations over the years – connotations that are related to the cultural and historical contexts in which the monstrous is produced. Thus, the study of the monster paradigm in works of fiction necessarily requires an examination of the historical, social, and cultural environments which contribute to the shaping of various monsters in different contexts. This chapter will attempt to analyze and interpret the nature of the monster, namely the “abject” monster, and how each culture produces the type of monster that embodies its anxieties and fears. It aims at analyzing literary representations of the monstrous double in Arabic contemporary horror fiction, and in Ahmed Khaled Towfik’s Utopia (2008) in particular. The analysis of manifestations of monstrosity within the cultural molds that produced it calls for a Foucauldian approach of power relations, the better to interpret the literary text and its cultural, historical, and socio-political dimensions.

Series:

Pedro Querido

Abstract

The relevance and lasting influence of artistic expressions of the philosophical concept of the absurd have been highlighted by many scholars, notably by Martin Esslin in his pioneering work The Theatre of the Absurd and by Neil Cornwell in The Absurd in Literature. Interestingly, a cursory glance at the works of the practitioners of the absurd deemed most significant by Esslin (Adamov, Beckett and Ionesco, but also Pinget, Pinter and Hildesheimer) and Cornwell (Daniil Kharms, O’Brien, Kafka and again Beckett) reveals an intriguing pattern: virtually all of them have at least one important work with older people as main characters. In this chapter, my main aim is to understand why old age is so prominent in absurdist literature. First, I will examine some of the most archetypal interactions between the aged protagonists and their absurd universes, refining my working definition of the absurd (wherein “resistance” is an operative word) in the process. Then, after assessing the congruity of outliers and the pertinence of alternative causal explanations for this correlation, I will demonstrate that the thematization of aging characters in absurdist works owes much to the fact that in them old age may be seen as the radicalization of the human condition.

Series:

Ana Romão

Abstract

The symbol of the “home” and the relationship between host and guest have had a long tradition of depictions in fictional narratives. Countless artists have contributed, with their creations, to several social debates by commenting on the threat an outsider might pose to the “home” (household, homeland, etc.). After the attacks on 11 September 2001, the cultural manifestations regarding representations of the “home” have accompanied an anxiety-ridden social instability, and were quick to encapsulate Western societies’ new standpoints concerning the “foreigner” in newly shaped narratives. A cinematic approach that has incisively explored the concerns with the violation of the “home” has been the horror subgenre of the “home invasion.” This approach typically sees a family relentlessly threatened by outsiders, whose only drive seems to be the extermination of the owners/inhabitants of a particular house. In this chapter, I seek to explain how the contemporary treatment of the “home invasion” theme differs from its origins (1970s through 1990s), exposing the inherent bleakness and hopelessness of post-9/11 films. Through this analysis, I also explore how this subgenre plays on the current Western fear-inducing rhetoric that presents the “foreigner” as an anonymous, violent, and restless threat to the “home.” As a case study, I propose to examine the film Funny Games (1997) and its shot-for-shot remake (2007), by Austrian director Michael Haneke. I intend to expose how the post-9/11 remake calls the public’s attention to their own evolved/devolved perceptions of the “home invasion” and the roles of host/guest within Derrida’s Law/laws of hospitality.

Series:

María Ibáñez-Rodríguez and Pedro Querido

Series:

Woodrow Hood

Abstract

Studying recent news events, music festival security may prove antithetical to the idea of a music festival – the free flow of emotions and ideas in fluid spaces. This chapter looks at the performative nature of attending a music festival and the driving forces beneath a particular set of ideas and behaviors. The case study is Moogfest, an electronic music festival in North Carolina.

Series:

María Ibáñez-Rodríguez

Abstract

Gothic, a hybrid form, has absorbed and adapted other literary forms and changed its own conventions in order to fit newer modes of writing. In the more than two centuries it spans, Gothic has moved in and out of mainstream culture, leaping from genre to genre. The important number of Gothic adaptations of the late twentieth and twenty-first centuries therefore comes as no surprise. In order to create an atmosphere of mystery and, thus, reader engagement, the Gothic makes use of the mechanics of terror and horror, and so have been doing the writers and artists behind some contemporary graphic novels, such as the award-winning novelist and comic book writer Joe Hill, whose series Locke & Key is of interest to this chapter. The story of Locke & Key revolves around the Locke family, who move to a manor in New England after the murder of their father. Filled with fantastic doors that transform all who walk through them, and home to a malevolent demon that will not rest until its forces open the most terrible door of them all, Keyhouse Manor, the type of house that whispers in the dark, becomes a character with its own history and identity. Considering both the physical setting and other incarnations of traditional Gothic, this chapter intends to explore the emotional connection that the horror of Locke & Key heightens with its multiple stories, which braid together to create an overwhelming feeling of being trapped: a definite success in any horror story.

Series:

Marta Moore

Abstract

The focus of my analysis is a specific literary and film genre that has emerged in a strictly defined time and space. The time is the communist era that followed World War ii and the Holocaust; the place is Central Europe. The underlying assumption of this chapter is that the unparalleled upheavals shaking Central Europe over the past several decades have produced not only profound social-political changes but also a distinctive literary and film genre. Though deeply European, this body of work must be distinguished from the literature and film produced elsewhere in Europe during this period of time, with its roots springing from a specific geographical area and from a specific intellectual climate characterizing the political, social, and historical worlds of that space. The authors and directors of these Central European texts come from a variety of countries, most of which belonged to the Austro-Hungarian Empire. While ethnically and religiously diverse, these countries share a common fate determined by the common experience of their respective peoples. Among the determining factors shaping their experience were such jolting events as the dismemberment of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in 1920, two World Wars, and the Holocaust. And when these disruptions came to a halt after the Allies’ victory, new, heretofore unimaginable ones started. The Soviets set up their own concept of government, which not only created terror for over half a century in these countries, but foisted a foreign civilization upon one hundred million people.