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Abstract

Hunting trophies are shown to be undergoing socialization in photos. They are no longer personal souvenirs that serve a purely introspective function for the individual. Hunting photos are discussed, critiqued, and conspicuously displayed across online and print platforms. They are shared between hunters and lately also between hunters and the public. Criteria for good hunting photos reflect the changing modality and times in which photos are shared. The ways hunters stage, compose, and manipulate their hunting tableaux evolve to address external and internal pressures regarding their representation. This evolution is illustrated in qualitative interviews with hunting magazine editors and hunting photographers in Sweden, as well as review of 320 hunting magazine covers from 1960s to today. To this new class of hunter-artists, the presentation of the quarry as object or sovereign wildlife changes the hunting tableau and also responds to contested ideals of authenticity in nature.

In: Society & Animals

Abstract

This study tested a tool that could reveal children’s attitudes toward unpopular nonhuman animals through a content analysis of constructed clipart scenes arranged and described by elementary students. Pictures were analyzed for clipart choices, pictorial themes, themes of attitudes toward nonhuman animals, and other components of verbalized statements. Most (79%) students created scenes showing humans standing surrounded by animals. Boys made more statements concerning weapons, traps, or poison and about performing violent actions against animals than girls. Girls made more statements about liking animals than boys. Ecologistic, naturalistic, humanistic, moralistic, and aesthetic themes (displaying “feminine” attitudes) were more common in the female participants’ verbalizations, while scientistic, utilitarian, dominionistic, negativistic, and neutralistic themes (displaying “masculine” attitudes) occurred more frequently in the male explanations. Both genders exhibited similar levels of “feminine” attitudes, but boys exhibited more “masculine” attitudes than girls.

In: Society & Animals

Abstract

This article investigates the construction of instruments and techniques employed in the management of Norwegian wolves since the early 1980s by construing the tools as technologies of government. The proliferation of such instruments and techniques, constructed to effect protection in practice, has transformed Norwegian wolves in significant ways. Unlike the historic population, which often went through large variations in numbers and was spread throughout large parts of the country, the current population of wolves is regulated to stay at a fixed number and within a relatively small wolf-zone. The current population is also highly amenable to detailed government; the number and location of the wolves, and even the genetic composition of the population over the longer term, can be reconfigured in detail. The article further argues that the general proliferation of governmental technologies in biodiversity conservation has meant similar transformations of a great number of endangered organisms.

In: Society & Animals

Abstract

One requirement for the formation of an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) is that they include a community member who embodies the values of the general population. This study’s aim is to investigate whether community members use moral arguments when deliberating a case of nonhuman animals used in experimentation. To this end, we tested the responses of community members in a situation similar to those confronting members of IACUC. The participants’ evaluation of the protocol was consistent with the mandates of IACUC. We also found that overall no moral argument played a significant role in their evaluation of a protocol. Only arguments based on loyalty to the human species played a moderate role in the evaluation of using animals in experimental research, in a way similar to using some moral arguments regarding the importance of human welfare to justify the use of animals in experimental research.

In: Society & Animals

Abstract

In discussions about nonhuman animal protection in China in recent years, one consistent theme is many people in China believe that animal welfare and the legal protection of animals are ahead of their time, and that animal welfare is a Western concept and practice, incompatible with Chinese culture. I argue that animal welfare is compatible with Chinese culture as seen through elements in Chinese traditional philosophy, imperial laws, and some idiomatic expressions in the Chinese language that are sympathetic toward animals. It is acknowledged that the realities in Chinese society have been very harsh as far as animals are concerned and much needs to be done in Chinese society to live up to some of the ideals espoused in Chinese culture and tradition. The grassroots animal protection efforts in China for the past ten years or so have been contributing positively and gaining traction in the right direction.

In: Society & Animals

Abstract

Animal cafés, a type of business where customers pay by the hour to spend time relaxing with nonhuman animals and other animal lovers, became popular in Japan during the late 2000s as part of the iyashi, or healing, boom. Young Japanese customers in need of positive affective experiences to address feelings, economic and social precarity turn to businesses like these to meet their emotional needs, engaging socially with animals in a commodified space. This article explores the kinds of intimate bonds that are created between the human customer and animal “staff” in these contexts, where customers engage with animals on their own terms, enjoying their companionship without any long-term responsibility for their care, and the effect this has on the lives of the café animals.

In: Society & Animals

Abstract

Emerging research regarding the psychological correlates of nonhuman animal abuse is warranted by the high prevalence of abuse. The few studies to examine factors related to animal abuse have found that those who commit such offenses commonly experience dysfunctional childhoods and high anxiety levels. Yet, no study has examined how attachment styles (by-products of maladaptive childhoods), social-anxiety, and animal abuse proclivity are inter-related. Therefore, this study assessed the association between attachment styles and social anxiety as indicators of animal abuse proclivity within an adult sample. It was found that an anxious attachment significantly correlated with direct proclivity (i.e., animal as the perceived provocateur) while the relationship between social anxiety and indirect animal abuse proclivity (i.e., animal as the outlet for aggression) was mediated by avoidant attachment. These findings emphasize the importance of exploring how interpersonal relationships influence our relationship with animals, to advance treatment and assessment of animal abusers.

In: Society & Animals

Abstract

Similar to other commodities, US sport horses have increasingly been outsourced. The sport horse commodity chain is a long process involving many actors. The data presented document a shift away from US-born horses to those born in Europe. Since the 1980s, the American sport horse market has become a global market. Over $300 million dollars in horses are imported into the United States, and over a third comes from Germany. These foreign horses have uprooted the domestic supply of sport horses, who were US-born ex-racehorses. This research relies on import data to document the transition from a domestic market to a global market. This transformation has wide-reaching implications for the equestrian industry in the US. Through analysis of import statistics, content analysis, and participant observation, data are presented that illustrate how equestrian show jumping changed as a result of the dependence on European supplies of horses.

In: Society & Animals
In: Disintegration: Bad Love, Collective Suicide, and the Idols of Imperial Twilight
In: Disintegration: Bad Love, Collective Suicide, and the Idols of Imperial Twilight