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Maria Assunção Flores

Abstract

In this chapter I look at major trends in becoming and being a teacher in Portugal and Spain in adverse times. Even though I take into consideration existing international literature, I will focus on some of the key aspects that characterise the teaching profession and teacher education in Iberia by drawing upon empirical work carried out in both countries. The intention is not to do an exhaustive literature review nor to undertake a state of the art. Rather, my aim is to look at major trends characterising teaching and teachers’ work as well as teacher education in terms of current challenges in order to identify possible directions. Contradictory trends may be identified in the ways in which teacher professionalism has been defined as well as in real conditions of teachers’ work in schools and classrooms with implications for teacher education.

Lily Orland-Barak and Ella Mazor

Abstract

This chapter explores mentoring and mentored learning in pre-service education at the encounter between two cultures (Arab-Druze student teachers and Jewish mentor teachers). Drawing on an illustrative case study from a larger data set of mentoring conversations and open-ended interviews in a study of intercultural mentoring, we propose an analytical framework for examining complexities within mentoring relationships that considers the social and cultural values, forms of communication, and reasoning and behavior of mentors and student teachers that may remain latent and unacknowledged. The discussion invites teacher educators, curriculum developers, and policy makers to consider how to support the development of mentors as culturally sensitive and responsive professionals.

Stephen Geofroy, Benignus Bitu, Dyann Barras, Samuel Lochan, Lennox McLeod, Lystra Stephens-James and Antoinette Valentine-Lewis

Abstract

Developing a critical-reflective teacher-understanding of teaching practices is an essential element of teacher development on the in-service Diploma of Education programme for secondary-school teachers at the University of the West Indies in Trinidad and Tobago. Teacher development involves engagement with key educational concepts and reflection on practice as teachers facilitate the learning of their charges. Given the post-colonial context characterising the educational system in the West Indies, this research arose out of the need by Social Sciences teacher-educators to find out whether their teachers had developed the kind of critical-reflective understandings that would enhance their classroom practice in an emancipatory fashion. This chapter examines teachers’ understandings of their teaching practices to determine whether these understandings can be classified as emancipatory, given the existing post-colonial nature of the educational system. The study assists the Social Sciences teacher-educators to improve their approach to teacher professional development, a key aspect of which involves the process of teacher reflection whereby teachers interrogate theory, practice and context and integrate improved understandings into their profession in an emancipatory manner. In this qualitative case study, data on teacher-understandings were gathered from teacher-participants’ written teaching-philosophy statements over the duration of the ten-month programme. Data reduction employed thematic analysis. Choice extracts were then presented and discussed in narrative form including observations and implications. Findings indicate that teacher-participants understand themselves as emancipatory agents, take responsibility for individual growth, however their sense of self as part of a professional community needs to be strengthened. They also possess understandings of their subject-discipline and teaching practice that can be considered as emancipatory.

Helping the Learning of Science in Whichever Language

The Attention to Proficiency in the LOLT, Polysemy and Context That Counts Best during Science Teaching

Samuel Ouma Oyoo and Nkopodi Nkopodi

Abstract

This chapter draws from an exploratory study of the difficulties South African High School physical science learners encounter with everyday English words when presented in the science context. Data were obtained from participants (1107 learners and 35 respective physical science teachers/educators from 35 public secondary schools in Johannesburg area of South Africa) through a word test to participant learners followed by group interviews but one-on-one interviews with respective physical science educators. Findings have revealed that South African learners also face difficulties with meanings of everyday words presented in the science context. While the main source of difficulties encountered was learner inability to distinguish between the meanings of familiar everyday words as used in everyday parlance from the ‘new’ meanings of the same everyday words when used in the science context, fewer difficulties will be experienced by learners if science educators (1) take to being more precise in their talk and use of language, and/or (2) generally explain the nature and context meanings of all the words used during teaching. The findings thus suggest that focusing on precise use of language as well as contextual proficiency more than on general proficiency in the language of learning and teaching (LOLT) during teaching perhaps holds more promise for enhanced learning and achievement in science. Steps necessary to raise teacher awareness of the potential impact of attention to precise use of language, nature and context meanings of everyday words of the LOLT science are discussed.

Leah Li Echiverri and Keith Lane

Abstract

Non-native English speaking students studying in an English medium university program in China, and taking a research methodology course (RM), were surveyed regarding attitudes to learning both English and course content, attitudes about a task based interactive approach – an ESL active learning construct – and influence of these on student satisfaction and learning. Convenience and purposive sampling of 72 students, a response rate of 72%, enrolled in RM completed the survey of this descriptive-correlation study.

Findings revealed that the students came to RM with a tacit English learning expectation in addition to the learning of the specified course content. They responded positively to interactive activities, similar to the types common to ESL classes, which simultaneously provided classroom interaction in English in tasks related to communication about RM. Attitudes and a task-based interactive approach had a strong and positive significant correlation to ESL student satisfaction and perceived learning. It is proposed that CLIL instructors should incorporate student to student speaking interaction to learning in CLIL courses.

Edited by Juanjo Mena, Ana García-Valcárel and Francisco García Peñalvo

Chiou-hui Chou

Abstract

The preparation of teachers through practicum is a central component of teacher education programs all around the world. Over the years, teacher educators have been arguing for a rethinking of the connections between campus courses and field experiences, on the grounds that more closely connecting these social spaces might enhance the learning of student teachers and better prepare them to be successful in the classrooms. How can teacher educators bridge the different learning sites and enhance prospective teachers’ learning? The researcher, implementing the concept of professional learning community, investigated EFL elementary student teachers’ development in their practicum in Taiwan. A qualitative case study approach was applied. Data were collected from discussions during each meeting, the student teachers’ reflective journal writing, semi-structured interviews, and the researcher’s classroom observations. The study found a carefully structured teaching practicum helped student teachers to analyze teaching practices critically and reflectively. It is suggested that university programs, teacher educators, and elementary schools can work together to make the teaching practicum a professional development opportunity for both student teachers and mentoring teachers.

Laura Sara Agrati

Abstract

In order to improve student learning, the teacher’s mediation function works as ‘integration’ of subject matter.
 Referring to the theoretical model of ‘pedagogical (and technological) content knowledge’ and the construction of ‘mediation’, the study addresses the process of integration and transformation that undergoes the school subject matter through the mediation devices used by the teacher.

The contribution presents the research design and first results of an exploratory study accomplished at University of Bari ‘Aldo Moro’ in a High school. The research is inspired by the ‘collaborative’ approach and uses a multiple-cases design through an in-depth study on mediation procedures of two philosophy teachers about same content knowledge – G. B. Vico’s difference between philology and philosophy.

The analysis refers to specific levels of the teacher practice: the integration of the school books and worksheet with other resources (personal notes, digital repository etc.) using the document analysis; the choice of mediators (active, iconic, symbolic, real or virtual) using the video observation and in-depth interview.

First findings are highlighting aspects concerning the dynamic of visual representation as support of students’ learning and the epistemic function of the teacher’s meta-representative competence: as, for example, the use of the criterion of completeness (not of simplicity) in the elaboration of explanatory images to be used in class.

These findings will be useful to the operational definition of the unit of analysis in subsequent study to be conducted on a broader investigation basis and on different learning contents.

Jukka Husu and D. Jean Clandinin

Abstract

Based on our editorial work on the Sage Handbook of Research on Teacher Education (2017), this chapter reviews current research that allows us to extend the scope of teacher educators and their learning. We developed a distinction between two kinds of scholarship, integration and disruption. A scholarship of integration allows us to bring ideas together while a scholarship of disruption allows us to both to contemplate Dewey’s (1929) idea of uncertainty and to take an inquiry stance. We use these two kinds of scholarship to discern different interpretations that guide understandings of teacher educator learning. By stretching the boundaries of teacher education outside of schools of education and classrooms, we review relevant research literature to offer insights that can help develop new ways of engaging in teacher education. We conclude that research on teacher education is not about clear answers, solutions, or theories but about understanding the complexities of how we are thinking about, and engaging in, the practices and policies of teacher education.

Wendy Moran, Robyn Brandenburg and Sharon M. McDonough

Abstract

Being a teacher educator is a complex endeavour and it is through systematic, and evidence-based reflection in and on practice that teaching pedagogy is more deeply understood. Extant literature reveals that reflective practice plays an integral role in understanding teacher educators’ work. This chapter focuses on pedagogical confrontations as a lens for reflective practice to reveal the complexity of teacher educators’ work. The term ‘pedagogical confrontations’ (PCs) signifies incidents, interactions or events in teaching which cause us to pause and critically examine our practice. In this chapter we examine the context, descriptions and responses of participant-identified pedagogical confrontations. Through independent and collaborative analysis of the confrontations we identify three key themes: (1) professional roles; (2) the importance of relationships; and (3) the changing nature of universities and teacher education. Using PCs as a lens for reflective practice reveals the relationship between one’s values and pedagogical practices and we contend that recognition and deeper knowledge of this relationship leads to richer understandings of teacher educators’ work.