Although Tanzania has ratified several international laws on corruption, the domestic enforcement of such laws remains problematic. Some social structures that sustain corruption in the country continue to exist. The article is informed by the theory of constructivism of international law. Some insights from cultural relativity theory, clashing moral values theory of corruption, Critical Theorist paradigm, and anti-colonial discursive framework have also been useful in informing the article. Using ethnographic longitudinal case study methodology, this article explores local subjectivities that interfere with the domestic enforcement of International laws on corruption in selected regions of Tanzania. The study has also attempted to answer the following question: can international law on corruption influence the local context and actors in an attempt to eliminate corruption in Tanzania? The key finding is that the presence of systemic corruption and local subjectivity hinders the fight against corruption. In turn, the situation hinders the domestic enforcement of international law. The study also highlights that the fifth phase government adopted an anti-corrupt cultural approach to address corruption in Tanzania. The cultural approach enabled Tanzania to attain significant achievements in the fight against corruption. In this regard, the study recommends a cultural approach to the elimination of corruption. The focus should be on creating an anti-corruption culture through good governance and democratization. The paper adds to the scholarship on cultural studies, development studies, human rights, African studies, governance, international law, and international relations.
Based on broad observations of the development of Confucius Institutes and Classrooms in Africa over a decade, this article focuses on educational partnerships between Chinese and African educational institutions and their implications for international development, as they relate to international development in the era of post-Covid-19. The author identifies the Confucian Zhong-Yong approach to educational partnerships through Confucius Institutes and Classrooms in Africa, a pragmatic model for educational development centered on Confucianism. Three core characteristics of Confucian educational partnerships – demand-driven, ethics-based and pragmatic – are seen as the key to the success of such partnerships. Reflecting on Ubuntu from a Confucian perspective, the author concludes that China’s humanistic Zhong-Yong approach to partnerships has a unique potential to re-envision education for international development in ways that may be of interest to such international developmental agencies as the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, the World Bank, and the United Nations.