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Simeon J. Newman and Laura J. Enríquez

Abstract

Research on East-Central Europe suggests that the transitions from state socialism to capitalism generated civil society. The present authors focus on the effects of a transition of the opposite variety: from capitalism towards state socialism. Both kinds of transitions are characterized by a disjuncture between enduring political economies and legitimate discourses calling for them to be changed. Marshaling qualitative and quantitative data, the authors demonstrate the existence, and assess the effects, of such a disjuncture in the case of Venezuela between circa 2000 and 2010. They examine a subset of rural civic organizations, showing that they referenced mutually-incompatible aspects of the disjointed state when developing their programs, leading them to within-class heterogeneity and occasional across-classes convergence, as is characteristic of pluralist civil society.

Fumiya Onaka and Akiko Nagai

Abstract

Various hypotheses have been used to examine gender inequality in careers, while at the same time comparative and historical sociology has developed around certain areas of interest. This introduction clarifies that there is a need for a comparative and historical sociology specifically related to women’s careers. It presents the rationale for this special issue, which gathers articles opening gateways to further research in this vein.

Chisato Atobe

Abstract

This article describes a social divide among women which was caused by an increase of highly-educated women’s labor force participation. The author focuses on female teachers in elementary school who managed to continue working after marriage in a time when most married women stayed at home in Japan. By focusing on a difference between the types of employment status among female teachers, the examination revealed that a group of women with low wages and unstable employment was generated as an unintended consequence when female teachers, who were regarded to have a stable occupational status, sought to continue working after giving birth. Further study should be conducted on this problem, because an international divide of labor is in progress under the global economy.

Yajuan Cao

Abstract

Gender-based prejudice and discrimination are phenomena embedded in cultural stereotypes and organizational practices that can disadvantage women in academic hiring. This article analyzes the biographies of female scholars in sociology from 18 top universities in China, finding that although the number of female scholars is increasing, it is still substantially less than that of male scholars. Relative to the increasing enrollment rate of female college students, the ratio of female scholars has dropped. Female scholars show their strong performance in research, not only doing well in work evaluation but also further developing their specific fields of research. Female scholars’ research interests are not limited to “Marriage and Family” or “gender studies”, but extend into a wider field of vision area of research. Although this article has not found the reason why female scholars are underrepresented in universities’ hiring, it proves that the limitation of research interests and abilities of female scholars are not the explanation.

Pilar Rodriguez Martinez

Abstract

This article will focus on the significant differences shown by the data found by the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) survey of women who may or may not have suffered physical Intimate Partner Violence against Women (IPVAW). The authors present the model and result of the discriminant function analysis that they carried out separately for the countries from southern Europe (Spain, Italy, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, and Malta) and Scandinavia (Denmark, Finland, and Sweden). Their hypotheses were that women with less income, lower educational level, who are divorced, who have children, are from rural areas, who are housewives, with bad health, older aged, immigrants, and those who had suffered some physical violence from other people – apart from the partner or ex-partner –, will suffer more violence than the rest of women. One of the most relevant conclusions from their analysis was this: the more often a woman experienced physical violence from someone other than a partner/ex-partner beginning at the age of 15 years old, the more probable it will be that she will suffer IPVAW. The authors discuss this and other significant findings here.

Bjørn Klimek

Abstract

This article examines macro-qualitative methodology specified for studies in comparative economic sociology. It elaborates a qualitative approach to comparative theory development. An examination of the socio-philosophical roots of social science theory is given, grounded theory methodology is reconstructed and research designs for macro-qualitative studies are discussed. It is argued that grounded theory methodology is able to contribute to macro-comparative studies as knowledge accumulation in case-specific research projects enables researchers to develop empirically grounded and plural notions of comparative theory. The research design presented for macro-qualitative inquiry builds on a middle-range attempt to accumulate knowledge in a micro-meso-macro procedure, including the productive examination of empirically grounded theoretical concepts at each analytical level. A previous macro-qualitative case study on Norwegian and Danish food industries since the 1990s turn is reconstructed to demonstrate how qualitative sociology is able to contribute to research frontiers that usually are dominated by quantitative economics.

Elisa García-Mingo

Abstract

Gender inequalities persist in the journalism profession in Spain, even though some have celebrated that it has become a feminized job. In fact, the journalistic profession in Spain has a severe gender divide: many women leave the profession; there are few women in the highest echelons of news organizations; there is an under-studied wage gap; and newsrooms continue to be gender-blind. This article explores these issues through the case of war reporting. War reporting has traditionally been considered a “man’s job,” but there are around forty women working for the Spanish media covering violence and armed conflicts. Based on in-depth interviews with women war correspondents and using the concept of typical career types, this article analyses the barriers that female reporters have to face and reflects on how gendered these barriers are.

Virginie Silhouette-Dercourt, Ousseynou Saidou Sy and Dominique Desjeux

This paper focuses on the beauty and sartorial choices of young French Muslim women in the Paris area. Through biographies on their morning rituals, this article questions the notion of cosmopolitanism when it comes to their veiling practices. Research suggests that these young women, through their double presence in the world – as French citizens and as global citizens – are powerful agents of change of the dominant material culture and consumption. Their varied beauty and sartorial choices help them construct a coherent inner and outer self and manage social and gendered interactions, facilitating circulation. It is argued that wearing the hijab can be conceptualized as a new form of cosmopolitanism, neither ‘from below’ nor ‘from above’: it reframes a Eurocentric view of conflicts between religious and secular discourses in postcolonial times, as well as French fashion.