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Patricia Burke Wood

Abstract

This paper documents the significance of horses to Irish Travellers, on several fronts, to demonstrate their unusual relationship with horses as companion animals and as work animals in a non-farm context. Their multiple attachments and engagement are analyzed in the context of the literature in human–nonhuman animal relations and animal geographies, which helps illuminate the ways in which horses have shaped Traveller geographies and identities, and how these associations have become politicized. The 1996 Control of Horses Act has led to greater restrictions on the keeping of horses; the impact of the loss of this animal from Traveller daily life is discussed. This research also helps fill a gap in the literature on horses and urban and rural landscapes in Ireland, which has to date largely excluded Travellers.

Jenjit Khudamrongsawat, Dhanyaporn Meetan and Nantarika Chansue

Abstract

The traditional practice of releasing turtles into temple ponds in Thailand, believed to benefit releasers, likely affects turtles’ welfare and impacts wild populations. We examined the species, abundance, and health of turtles in six temple ponds. Seven native turtle species and two exotic species were recorded. Most common were the yellow-headed temple turtle (Heosemys annandalii), a legally protected species, and the exotic red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). Almost all examined turtles showed signs of illness, the most common being shell lesions and excessive algal growth on shells. Poor sanitation and food quality, and limited space to bask, observed in all ponds, contributed to turtles’ poor health. We recommend using better-managed temple ponds as temporary rehabilitation centers and returning healthy native turtles to natural areas, while encouraging people to provide funds to support the turtles and discouraging the release of new turtles.

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Paul Harris, Katie Paterson and David Mitchell

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Volume-editor Carlos Montemayor and Robert Daniel

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Jo Alyson Parker and Thomas Weissert

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In the following paper, we discuss a sub-genre of fiction that we call time-loop fiction, texts that are predicated upon a situation of seemingly eternal recursion. Drawing upon examples taken from literature (Kate Atkinson’s Life after Life, Ken Grimwood’s Replay, Richard Lupoff’s “12:01,” and Hiroshi Sakurazaka’s All You Need is Kill) and from film/telefilm (Edge of Tomorrow, Groundhog Day, Source Code, 12:01 PM, and “Cause and Effect”), we explore the “time as conflict” between endless looping and narrative closure for both the protagonists and the readers/viewers who follow their plights. After describing the forking-paths structure of time-loop narratives, we examine a key feature of them – the emerging metaconsciousness, a character’s ability to transcend the loop in which they currently exists and to recall past loops in order to bring about a better outcome with each passage through the loop. We conclude by discussing three different types of time-loop narratives and their implications for our understanding of time.

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Kerstin Cuhls

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Foresight is the long-term view into the future or different futures, defined as the more action-oriented ‘structured debate about complex futures.’ The academic pendant is Futures Research dealing with possible, probable and desirable future developments. Even if the future cannot be predicted, major developments emerge already today in their basics. The guardrails of the possible, probable and desirable can be determined in this sense by scientific methods and in social discourses. Foresight is thus a concept to prepare for futures and avoid urgent reactions, quick and un-reflected, reactive answers to problematic situations or sudden occurrences. Methods are available to work with the different time horizons (e.g., Delphi surveys), to work with different long-term scenarios in preparation or decision-making, or even to travel in time as thought experiments. But although time scales up to 30, 40 or even more years have to be considered when e.g., investing in new infrastructures, technologies or to change the behavior of people, decision-making is often still ad hoc and does not take the time to think about the consequences. It remains in reaction to urgency. In Foresight and Futures Research, a very linear time concept is still in the forefront, although the thought experiments make it possible to go back and forth in time thinking, prepare for different futures, or even shape ‘the’ preferable future with visioning processes (mainly in innovation research but also in transformative studies). This contribution demonstrates examples from empirical research mainly in ‘government Foresight’ but also ‘Strategic Foresight’ of companies, associations or others with the aim to avoid urgency situations. It tries to explain why both long- and short-term time considerations are so important and what long- and short-term means for the different stakeholders (relativity of time considerations).

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Carlos Montemayor

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Volume-editor Carlos Montemayor and Robert Daniel

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Rose Harris-Birtill

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This essay explores the trope of reincarnation across the works of British author David Mitchell (b. 1969) as an alternative approach to linear temporality, whose spiralling cyclicality warns of the dangers of seeing past actions as separate from future consequences and whose focus on human interconnection demonstrates the importance of collective, intergenerational action in the face of ecological crises. Drawing on the Buddhist philosophy of samsara, or the cycle of life, death, and rebirth, this paper identifies links between the author’s interest in reincarnation and its secular manifestation in the treatment of time in his fictions. These works draw on reincarnation in their structures and characterization as part of an ethical approach to the Anthropocene, using the temporal model of “reincarnation time” as a narrative strategy to demonstrate that a greater understanding of generational interdependence is urgently needed in order to challenge the linear “end of history” narrative of global capitalism.