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Following the 2016 US elections, populism as a political discourse tactic surged worldwide and became critically examined by scholars as result of the anti-establishment rhetoric used throughout the Trump campaign. Yet despite the considerable amount of scholarly attention dedicated to this topic, its international dimension and ability to transcend beyond national borders has been rarely studied. To fill the lacuna in the literature on populism, in this article we examine how populist discourse is construed by leaders in an effort to appeal to an audience beyond their national borders. In doing so we examine the speeches and political rhetoric of Turkey’s president Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Venezuela’s former president Hugo Chavez’s, both of which demonstrate obvious examples of populist narratives. We adopt a qualitative discursive approach to identify salient populist rhetoric in the speeches of both leaders, which ultimately create divisions over identity and politics among citizenry and in many instances create such divides within the international arena.

In: Populism


The European Union (EU) has become a key player in space, second only to that of the USA. This article discusses what type of diplomatic actor the EU is in space by exploring whether it contributes to peaceful co-operation or if the EU — due to increasing geopolitical competition on Earth — is developing into a traditional realist actor. For this purpose, it applies three analytically distinct models of EU space policies, applicable also to other Global Commons areas. It finds that the EU does not treat space as an area of geopolitical competition. Instead, it contributes to space diplomacy through its focus on regulating and institutionalising space activities. However, rather than being driven by ‘the space flight idea’, the EU is committed to the peaceful development of space mainly for economic, strategic and societal purposes, in line with what one would expect of a liberal institutionalist actor.

In: The Hague Journal of Diplomacy


This article explores the role of materiality in space diplomacy through the example of orbital docking technology by tracing its evolution from the early days of the space age to the International Space Station — and beyond. Drawing on the use of assemblage theory in political geography, this article argues for a ‘more-than-human’ approach to space diplomacy to supplement and provide an alternative to conventional approaches to diplomacy studies. By conceptualising the International Space Station as a diplomatic assemblage with which the multinational partners become enmeshed, we investigate how materials, specifically androgynous orbital docking technology, fostered co-operation and peace in the wake of the Cold War and which continues today.

Open Access