This article analyzes modern religious life in Ukraine, specifically the relations between religious organizations and government bodies in state and social domains. Particular attention is given to the concrete territorial and historical evolution of state Christian doctrines and church relations in Ukrainian lands. The article also examines the main problems and conflicts regarding the registration and functioning of the largest religious organizations in the country, and relations between them. Special attention is paid to the role that religious organizations play in the democratic processes, and to their effect on the relations between state and church. These relations have unfolded against the background of the political events of the last 15 years in Ukraine and the region: internal social conflicts, the general trend toward pro-European democratization, and the Russian-Ukrainian conflict.
Many Quakers who reached maturity towards the end of the nineteenth century found that their parents’ religion had lost its connection with reality. New discoveries in science and biblical research called for new approaches to Christian faith. Evangelical beliefs dominant among nineteenth-century Quakers were now found wanting, especially those emphasising the supreme authority of the Bible and doctrines of atonement whereby the wrath of God is appeased through the blood of Christ. Liberal Quakers sought a renewed sense of reality in their faith through recovering the vision of the first Quakers with their sense of the Light of God within each person. They also borrowed from mainstream liberal theology new attitudes to God, nature and service to society. The ensuing Quaker Renaissance found its voice at the Manchester Conference of 1895, and the educational initiatives which followed gave to British Quakerism an active faith fit for the testing reality of the twentieth century.
This paper examines two cases of deliberation on the issue of religious arbitration in Canada: first, the Sharia law debate in Ontario (deliberation in the larger public sphere); and second, a deliberation on religious arbitration in British Columbia (deliberation in a small-scale structured setting). Relying on both secondary and original data, this article demonstrates that while the Sharia law debate failed to fulfill the key functions of a deliberative engagement, the small-scale deliberation was able to achieve all three functions: participants had the chance to express their opinions; there was ample dialogue and communication evident by increased empathy, perspective-taking ability, and knowledge gains; and finally, participants were able to come to a decision, however broad, together. Through this comparison, the article highlights key barriers to deliberation across differences and concludes with some suggestions for carrying out such engagements in the future.
Numerous studies have shown that the number of nonreligious people in the World is increasing and that people without religious affiliation demonstrate more liberal attitudes on controversial issues than affiliated people. Research suggests these differences may arise from the higher education level of the nonreligious and/or cultural context. To further explore the effects of culture on the attitudes of nonreligious, I analyze data from The Global Attitudes Project-Spring (2013). The data were downloaded from the Association of Religion Data Archives, www.TheARDA.com and were collected by Pew Research Center. When the data were analyzed, 6746 of the participants (18.2%) were found to be nonreligious. Three of the countries with the highest rate of nonreligious are from Western Europe (Czechia=69.5%, Britain=44.4%, Germany=35.3%) and three of them are from Far East (China=83.4%, Japan=45.4%, South Korea=42.6%). I compared attitudes of nonreligious from these countries (N=4581) towards abortion, contraception use, and homosexuality. The results indicate that nonreligious people living in the Far East find abortion, contraceptive use, and homosexuality more “morally unacceptable” than Western Europeans. This suggests that attitudes among the nonreligious are not homogenous, and that cultural factors are important variables to consider in future research.
Using the idiomatic expression found in the United States, this essay contends that the current field of missiology is black-ish. The expression is used to describe something purports to be Black (African American), but upon close inspection may not be authentic to the culture. This essay seeks to examine the dearth of specifically African American contributions to missiology. Citing issues of internal structuring and epistemology, an argument is made that African American voices and culture are often lost in this maze constituted by a lack of uniformity within mission studies. Additionally, there is an existing catalogue of Black scholarship that deals, directly and indirectly, with mission but is often not given the same latitude of inclusion and review that White scholarship is afforded in the United States.
This contribution contrasts the dichotomization of individualization and communitization of religion, which is still prominent in the social sciences, with a religious phenomenon that shows that religion must be understood beyond the opposition of these spheres. Against the background of a corresponding concept of religion, the popular religion (Knoblauch 2009), which continues Thomas Luckmann’s theory of religion (1967), the concept of Celebrations will be presented. This empirically generated concept relies on self-recorded video data of Christian events in Europe. Celebrations are to be understood as religious events that are based on a specific affective order, which is able to merge the most diverse cultural communicative forms on the level of individual religiosity and community (cf. Haken 2020a, 2020b). Referring to web-based data on the Hindu Kumbh Mela in India, the transferability of the concept of Celebrations is exploratively applied to another religious event.
Measures and conceptualizations in the psychology of religion have been developed on predominantly Christian samples and their transportation to the study of other religions can be problematic. A review of empirical research on Israeli Jewish samples in different research areas—measuring religiousness, religious motivation, mystical experience, prayer, religious support, religious fundamentalism, and religiousness & sexuality—is presented and the significance of differences in orthodoxy / orthopraxy orientation, religious theology and belief, religious practice, and sociological aspects of religious life for empirical research in the psychology of religion is demonstrated. Methodological recommendations in each instance are provided. Many of the insights and recommendations presented here are applicable to the study of additional non-Christian religions.