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Abstract

The aim of this article is to clarify and describe the relationships between levels of personality functioning, pathological personality traits from the borderline and narcissistic functioning, and time perspective (TP). The study was conducted online, and 210 participants completed eight questionnaires: Inventory of Personality Organization, Boredom Proneness Scale, Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire, Depressive Experience Questionnaire, and Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. The results reveal that the pathological personality functioning was consistently associated with a deviation on each dimension of TP and the Deviation from the Balanced Time Perspective (DBTP) while the higher functioning personality indicator was associated with a balanced time perspective. When accounting for all traits in the regression, pathological personality traits predicted variance of Past-Negative, Present-Hedonistic, Present-Fatalistic, and the DBTP. Borderline and narcissistic traits were associated with the DBTP but demonstrated different time perspective profiles. Borderline traits showed an overall negative TP with a tendency to seek quick and intense pleasure in the present with no regards toward the future. These results show that there can be TP profile differences between borderline personalities, depending on their specific trait profile. Impulsivity plays an important role in how borderline personalities cope with their negative temporalities. Vulnerable narcissism is characterized by a negative past with the ability to recruit the future, while grandiose narcissism denotes an overall more balanced time perspective than their vulnerable counterpart.

In: Timing & Time Perception

Abstract

Numerous challenges that arise in the field of art history require recourse to expertise in perceptual psychology. In addition to explaining the meaning that people attach to individual works of art and their content, the effect that arises in the recipient is essential to deciding whether the work of art could adequately represent a statement. In addition, with in-depth knowledge of the human act of perception, it is easier to understand what people can and cannot process, when, and how. Art and perception have always formed a unity, as a work of art has no meaning without perception. Artists often acted as intuitive psychologists who understood very well how human perception works and how certain effects can be achieved. Accordingly, art history, which is dedicated to art from a historical perspective, requires precisely this expertise in a systematic manner to adequately depict, describe, and explain the dimension of perception. The following programmatic paper aims to make clear why both disciplines should work closely together and shows what such fruitful paths of joint work could look like.

In: Art & Perception

Abstract

The aesthetics of abstract shapes — shapes devoid of meaning or familiarity — offer an intriguing subject for study, as it can offer insights into how we perceive and appreciate visual stimuli, shedding light on the underlying mechanisms of visual cognition and the nature of artistic experience. This research investigates the impact of contour type (angular versus rounded edges) and complexity (number of vertices) on aesthetic preferences, including their potential interaction. Additionally, we explored the influence of movement as an aesthetic variable, given its potential to enhance complexity, though the relationship between movement and complexity remains unexplored. Our findings indicate that both contour type and complexity significantly influence preferences, with shapes featuring curved contours and fewer vertices being favoured. This highlights the aesthetic appeal of curvature and simplicity. Contrary to expectations, movement did not have a noticeable effect on aesthetic judgements. While no overall interaction between contour type and complexity was found, this lack of interaction was obscured by significant individual differences. Specifically, within individuals, strong interactions between contour type and complexity were observed. It appears that these individual differences are due more to the varying emphasis (dominance) placed on each variable rather than a difference in the preference for specific characteristics. Future research should further analyse these individual differences to understand the nuanced dynamics of aesthetic preferences.

In: Art & Perception

Abstract

The ability to leverage visual cues in speech perception — especially in noisy backgrounds — is well established from infancy to adulthood. Yet, the developmental trajectory of audiovisual benefits stays a topic of debate. The inconsistency in findings can be attributed to relatively small sample sizes or tasks that are not appropriate for given age groups. We designed an audiovisual speech perception task that was cognitively and linguistically age-appropriate from preschool to adolescence and recruited a large sample ( N = 161 ) of children (age 4–15). We found that even the youngest children show reliable speech perception benefits when provided with visual cues and that these benefits are consistent throughout development when auditory and visual signals match. Individual variability is explained by how the child experiences their speech-in-noise performance rather than the quality of the signal itself. This underscores the importance of visual speech for young children who are regularly in noisy environments like classrooms and playgrounds.

In: Multisensory Research

Abstract

Approximately 30–60% of people suffer from olfactory dysfunction (OD) such as hyposmia or anosmia after being diagnosed with COVID-19; 15–20% of these cases last beyond resolution of the acute phase. Previous studies have shown that olfactory training can be beneficial for patients affected by OD caused by viral infections of the upper respiratory tract. The aim of the study is to evaluate whether a multisensory olfactory training involving simultaneously tasting and seeing congruent stimuli is more effective than the classical olfactory training. We recruited 68 participants with persistent OD for two months or more after COVID-19 infection; they were divided into three groups. One group received olfactory training which involved smelling four odorants (strawberry, cheese, coffee, lemon; classical olfactory training). The other group received the same olfactory stimuli but presented retronasally (i.e., as droplets on their tongue); while simultaneous and congruent gustatory (i.e., sweet, salty, bitter, sour) and visual (corresponding images) stimuli were presented (multisensory olfactory training). The third group received odorless propylene glycol in four bottles (control group). Training was carried out twice daily for 12 weeks. We assessed olfactory function and olfactory specific quality of life before and after the intervention. Both intervention groups showed a similar significant improvement of olfactory function, although there was no difference in the assessment of quality of life. Both multisensory and classical training can be beneficial for OD following a viral infection; however, only the classical olfactory training paradigm leads to an improvement that was significantly stronger than the control group.

In: Multisensory Research

Abstract

Light of a divine or transcendent nature is widely revered in various religious and mystical traditions around the world, and luminosity with mystical qualities such as love, bliss, peace, and noetic realization is also frequently reported by contemporary experiencers. Despite being described as a profoundly significant, sacred, and transformative experience, mystical luminosity has received relatively little attention in modern scholarship and scientific study, and has only been examined empirically within isolated contexts, such as NDE s or contemplative practices. This study examines the phenomenology which binds mystical luminosity across various experiential contexts to construct a phenomenologically grounded theoretical model. A three-part mixed methods investigation using a new mystical luminosity experience scale based on this model is then summarized, with findings generally supporting and further clarifying the model.

In: Mystical Luminosity Experience

Abstract

Frank Stella’s early works tend to be characterised as displaying the flatness of painted surfaces and an ambition to negate pictorial illusionism. However, beyond their emphasis on flatness, these early series of paintings generate new forms of illusions and, in some cases, initiate another type of pictorial space — one that bodies forth, coming toward the viewer, appearing as if in front of the canvas. We consider the materials of the painting format in Stella’s early work (1959 to 1986) that create or facilitate the emergence of such a protruding or ‘projective’ space: mainly canvas, types and colours of paint. After introducing notions of flatness and illusionism and our respective approaches, we focus on Stella’s use of unprimed, raw, canvas, on the one hand, and his use of reflective and fluorescent paint skins, on the other, and how paint and canvas relate to each other. We focus on the material conditions that Stella sets up to manifest his intentions regarding the perception of space in painting and where he believes painting ‘should’ go. Indeed, in a book published in 1986, Stella describes projective effects from painters who use different tactics than his, but he does not reveal how he achieves his own. We analyse precisely which elements in Stella’s early paintings trick the eye of the viewer into seeing a painting, as it were, in front of itself, and we demonstrate the aesthetic impact of Stella’s chosen materials. Or how colour, paint and canvas, working together in a sort of symbiosis, generate a protruding effect in a new, previously unseen manner, and challenge Stella’s assertions against illusionism.

In: Art & Perception

Abstract

The latest research demonstrates that people’s perception of orange juice can be influenced by the shape/type of receptacle in which it happens to be served. Two studies are reported that were designed to investigate the impact, if any, that the shape/type of glass might exert over the perception of the contents, the emotions induced on tasting the juice and the consumer’s intention to purchase orange juice. The same quantity of orange juice (100 ml) was presented and evaluated in three different glasses: a straight-sided, a curved and a tapered glass. Questionnaires were used to assess taste (aroma, flavour intensity, sweetness, freshness and fruitiness), pleasantness and intention to buy orange juice. Study 2 assessed the impact of the same three glasses in two digitally rendered atmospheric conditions (nature vs urban). In Study 1, the perceived sweetness and pleasantness of the orange juice was significantly influenced by the shape/type of the glass in which it was presented. Study 2 reported significant interactions between condition (nature vs urban) and glass shape (tapered, straight-sided and curved). Perceived aroma, flavour intensity and pleasantness were all significantly affected by the simulated audiovisual context or atmosphere. Compared to the urban condition, perceived aroma, freshness, fruitiness and pleasantness were rated significantly higher in the nature condition. On the other hand, flavour intensity and sweetness were rated significantly higher in the urban condition than in the natural condition. These results are likely to be relevant for those interested in providing food services, or company managers offering beverages to their customers.

Open Access
In: Multisensory Research
Free access
In: Timing & Time Perception
In: Timing & Time Perception